An Indo-European word tree.
The world created through division of "the
Division = del-ning in Swedish.
Words meaning count and tell something have the same root.
Tal = "number", = "speech" in
In Finnish too, belonging to the Uralic language family:
lukea = count, read, say.
(Used abbreviations in
this figure, see end of the
1. The 5-dimensional model, presented in files
is here applied to the structure of language.
2. The general hypothesis is that the same fundamental
patterns that govern processes on elementary physical levels
also can be expected to turn up on all superposed levels
in Nature - more or less recognizable.
3. If the model in one or another form shows up to be valid
on underlying levels as in the genetic
code and biology,
it would be natural if it also reappeared as a pattern on
the superposed linguistic level. Natural both in the motor production
of language and in the speech situation, which gives the
semantic sense, the relation to the surroundings from which
human beings are precipitations and to which they relate
4. Schools among grammarians use models similar to the dimension
model here, e.g. the "tree" structures of the
Chomsky school for analysis similar to polarizations here,
"derivations" between levels, concepts as that
about a deep structure in relation to the surface level
(The linguists' tree structures should
of course be turned upside down for a more adequate tree
form (!), but our bad habit in western culture to read and
write downwards explains surely that this inversion has
become the practice.)
5. It's proposed here that this model could make up at
last one part up the basis for children's inborn ability
to grasp a grammar that Noam Chomsky launched as hypothesis,
underlying the different rule systems of individual languages.
Such a built-in cognitive structure in human
brains should probably be a very fundamental model to allow
for the thousands of variations that exist and have existed.
It seems as a reasonable hypothesis that such a built-in structure for language is a further development of the network for the olfactory sense (paragraph 3). The chemical level of smells is a system for communication in the animal kingdom, and in the nervous system of electric signals this underlying chemical level appear in all synapses.
6. There are at least three areas of language
where the dimension model may be applied rather easily:
the structure of humans' speech organs, the
types of phonemes - and main word categories
through which humans perceive themselves and the environment,
categories which may be connected with main word classes
or parts of sentences. Many grammatical features in different
language families are also possible to analyze and interpret
in terms of the dimension model.
7. About numbers, we have for instance up to 5 - 6 levels
in the linguists' analyses of languages, about 5-6 types
of phonemes, - with about thirty phonemes as an average
value in different languages - as the sum of poles in a
dimension chain, and we may count on about 5 to 4 elementary
categories of words...
8. Views and applications of the model in following files
may surely seem very simple - too simplified perhaps in
many cases, and generalizations become of natural reasons
more vague. Yet, even linguists by profession - as for instance
Roman Jacobson - have made use of similar dimensional
aspects in his analyses, even if it concerned a more limited
Language as a force:
Speech is of course a force, analogous to the forces in
physics: an equivalent on this superposed level of relations
between living creatures as particles.
Physicists call the boson quanta "carriers
of forces". In the same sense words or speech is just
such carriers of forces between people, binding or disintegrating.
As the nuclear force and the electromagnetic
one sews up atoms and molecules, language functions as sewing
Two of the physical forces are called
strong or weak interaction, with quanta as
π-mesons (or "gluons")
and neutrinos and others. Speech is interaction in the same
way with quanta carrying sense and energy in the communication.
(Like interchange of commodities in the economy.)
Language may also be interpreted as a further development
from the chemical level with correspondences to chemical
laws: with "ionizations" to morphemes, with free
valences for linguistic derivations, with charges in sentences,
"radical groups", attraction and repulsion etc.
The historical development of a morpheme
or word, with branching of the signification in different
directions, has also similarities with the substances in
glycolysis and citrate cycle for instance, where the different
stages also leave the circulation to transform into other
chemical molecules with other functions.
Without entering into the question how language are stored
in the brain, it can be observed that the number of phonemes
in basic morphemes (word stems) or syllables is circa 3-2,
sometimes 4-5: the same number as number of bases in codons
in the genetic code or totally (T/U-G-C-A). However, in
numbers, it's the number of amino acids that resembles phonemes
in the "genetic alphabet".
The probable deeper relations between the coding systems
of a) the genetic code for proteins and b) language is (or
would be) an interesting area of research.
In a first view there is an obvious opposition:
Language as a way from the multidimensional sense and sentences
to linear (sequential) motor action - in opposition to proteins
as linear, through folding becoming multidimensional. The
folding of proteins, so essential for their function, and
what in the code that eventually decides this folding, is
still an unanswered question.
Speech as motions:
Language as motions out of the "angle
Also motion as such, "dimension degree
(d-degree) 0/00" in the model here, is a force in relation
to other d-degrees. "Carrier" of this force are
the bodies that move.
According to one hypothesis about the dimension
model, the steps in a dimension chain have also the character
of angle steps through 5(0) →
4 →3 →2
→1 - 0/00 (00), as e.g. halvings:
360° — 180° —
90° — 45° — 22,5°
—11,25°. Five steps
give the angle rest 11,25 which could be regarded as the
germ for motions as such: language as a force translated
to motions out of this angle rest: an opening for communication
with the surroundings, the 00-pole.
Speech has two centra in human brains: Wernicke's
area in the temporal lobe for interpretation, and Broca's
area near primary motor centra for speech.
They are connected as through an arch,
"fascicutus arcuatus" (which could illustrate
Really basic morphemes seem possible to
manage and understand by Wernicke's centre, real syntactic
connections first in Broca's area, according to studies
of brain damages (RB).
The Situation of Speech and Types of
1. The speech situation makes up the starting point for
a development from primary to secondary sentences and types
The speaker c1 — addressee(s)
c2 — narrating centre
2. In resemblance with how the cortex of cerebrum
develops and spreads out as a projection surface over older
parts of the brain, the communication between individuals
develops from "radial" messages between speaker
and addressee to descriptions as along a circumference or
coordinate axis "in straight angle" to the line
between both parts (c3); it gets a character of projection.
(However, also the dance of bees has the narrative function,)
3. In terms of the dimension model:
First polarization 0 <———>
00, centre — anticentre
(circumference) is given in the situation for speech in
the relation speaker - addressee(s). They are as centre
- anticentre poles out of a 5-dimensional unit, "the
whole situation". Between these poles the 4th dimension
degree (d-degree) is defined, in our model proposed as Direction,
corresponding to a vector field. Speaker and addressee (listener)
become each other's anticentra.
4. This primary relation gives types of sentences with
directions, such as exclamations, exhortations, questions,
ceremonial greetings and so on, types of sentences which
are valid in "I <—>
You" relations. (As developments from animals' greeting,
calling or warning signals.)
Drawing any border between languages of animals and humans
becomes difficult to justify. "Earlier" means
of articulation as dance, facial expressions, body language
etc. could be regarded as built-in activities in the ballet
of tongue. When language moves out to the growing cortex
of cerebrum, the expressions move inwards towards the mouth.
Homo Sapiens, with the thumb opposite
to other fingers and using tools, developed "auxiliary
5. A centre displacement to c3 and a new coordinate axis
implies a d-degree step 4 →
3, a development from "I→You"
speech to what semantically is speech in "3rd person",
"he-she-this-that" speech. It implies displacements
in types of sentences to describing, narrative speech,
a perpendicular relation between speaker-addressee and what
is referred to. Further centre displacements may lead to
e. g. subordinate clauses.
6. Displacements in types of sentences should be compared
as differentiations in syntax and among verbs.
7. The describing, referring sentences concerns things
located as along the circumference around the speaker. "3rd
person" (singular, plural) gets precipitated as through
a dimensional process. And first conditions have been created
for secondary directions, secondary tenses for verbs etc.
(Are there perhaps in the prehistory of languages
different word stems for speech in these two senses?)
8. The centre displacement to speech in "3rd person"
implies a relation where that which is referred to in a
deeper semantic sense becomes an object (an object of speech).
The speaker as primary subject understood. The mentioned
subject becomes as an object of lower d-degree.
(Cf. in Swedish that the demonstrative
pronoun "den" derives from an oblique case
form, that is to say concerns nouns that not are subjects
in the sentences, not is in the nominative.)
9. Here it's suggested to regard the first poles 0 and
00, centre - anticentre as basis for the word category of
Chomsky talks about "the sovereign
position of the subject" in the sentence. In terms
of the dimension model it would refer to the subject as
the sovereign 0-pole, starting point for directions outwards.
When grammarians in a first step of their analyses describe
sentences divided in subject part (NP, noun phrase) and
predicate part (VP, verb phrase), the analysis is already
displaced to the describing type of sentences. "The
sovereign position of the subject" is perhaps foremost
the necessity to mention that the speech concerns another
centre than the speaker or the addressee, a consequence
of the centre displacement to "3rd person" and
the new coordinate axis.
(Secondarily the mentioned nouns may be replaced by "pro-nouns",
referring back to the nouns. Then also 3rd person may be
implicitly understood as subjects as these pronouns are
absent in the Amerindian language caddo, while
1st and 2nd person in that language have to be pointed out
with pronouns in the reference back from the new position.)
10. The first three steps:
3rd d-degree — descriptions
as perpendicular to the speaker
4th d-degree — direction
speaker <—> addressee
ä 5th d-degree —
whole situation for speech.
Such a way through displaced centra corresponds to the
way towards superposed levels and differentiations such
as within word categories (cases, tenses etc.).
The types of sentences could be regarded in relation to
the "faculty chain" in psychology (treated in
a book in Swedish, "Jaget kontra Egot", The I
and the Ego, by this author):
5 —— ——
4 —— ——
3 —— ——
2 —— ——
1 —— ——
aim/direction - emotions - conceptions - thoughts - words/reactions
Sentences as exhortations with directions between speaker
and addressee, expressions for elementary aims, "will".
Exclamations as expressions for emotions in next step. Then
the narrative sentences developed from the conceptions in
12. Cf. vowel exclamations versus consonants in d-degree
steps (4)-3-2 through secondary demarcations, see files
Levels in linguistic analysis
1. According to the dimension model here the sense or the
Meaning with big M should be regarded as a "5-dimensional"
unit, as a virtually underlying reference in the situation
of speech, in the meeting between speaker and the surroundings
or addressee. It could be imagined as an intersection between
several virtual coordinate axes which stepwise gets translated
to linear sentences.
The physical quantities in the dimension chain, with complementary
2. Linguists subdivide the process in 2-3-4-5-6 levels according
to different models (CEL). (Number of levels should
perhaps be related to number of changeover stations in the
3. In this model it's assumed that each steps in a first
5-dimensional chain may develop to new (cf. fractal) dimension
chains. This gives what we have called a level chain. Such
a level chain in transformation of meaning to sentences
is here sketched in approximate agreement with the terminology
4. Some notes on the associations with dimension
(As a level chain, a super-organization, the dimensional
character becomes necessary derived in many steps and mostly
- Syntax is here suggested as from d-degree
4 (in step 4→3), a deeper
level than the following ones, regarded from the whole in
differentiating direction. Why, when syntax differs very
much between individual languages?
One reason to mention here is that syntax
concerns the whole sentences and rules for the combinations
of words. Another that syntax acts as or represent binding
forces between the clause elements - as higher d-degrees
in our model are defined as binding forces in relation to
More aspects and reflections in file about
- Word types or "categories" (Verbs,
Nouns, Adjectives...) are regarded as the level 3-2, implying
a separation in units, in a figurative sense with borders
(d-degree 2) between them, a classification of their main
roles on an elementary level. In the model the primary poles
of d-degree 3 within physics are proposed as Mass and Vacant
Space and in simple geometrical terms: circular / radial.
- Morphemes, as word stems (or syllables):
the boundary between word types are opened, the words "ionized",
in this sense connected with Charge, proposed as of d-degree
2 in the model. Morphemes carry often an essential semantic
character that can be used as parts in different
word classes. Regarded in synthesizing direction they form
first elementary "linear" rows of phonemes (even
if sometimes only one phoneme). Hence they are here suggested
as representing d-degree step 2 <—>
- Phonemes as individual (although complex)
quanta of motor speech derive naturally from d-degree step
1 → 0/00. (0/00 the d-degree
of Motions in our model).
- And the Sense, Meaning of the sentence
represents the Whole, d-degree 5.
5. Writing development shows the same development
from ideographic writing and "words" to syllable
writing to phonetic writing - a way of differentiations
from "the whole".
6. About transitions between the levels:
The transitions from parts of sentences as Subjects - Predicatives
- Adverbials in Syntax to Word types or " categories"
as nouns - verbs - adverbs as following from the centre
displacements in the speech situation:
- Parts of sentences, the clause elements, get naturally
decided by the underlying level of syntax and may be assumed
as the preliminary stage.
A language as Chinese lacks classes of
words in our sense. There it's possible to speak about more
complex semantic concepts - of higher dimension degree -
where the word order and other things decide the roles of
The existence of such languages is one
argument for interpreting the different classes of words
as stepwise precipitations through a development of the
type of a dimension chain.
- The centre displacement to a coordinate axis perpendicular
to the one between speaker and addressee, to a secondary
0-pole in the surrounding c2, gives a talked-about subject
and the role of subject projected as on a surface.
This subject demands that something or
somebody is pointed out, is "located", encircled,
through a name: it gets "substantivized". In this
way the displacement in the situation of speech implies
a displacement also from the level of syntax and clause
elements to the categories of words on superposed level.
Hence, first "in 3rd person"
nouns as a class of words would be defined, first with the
describing/telling type of sentences.
- In a corresponding way the verbs may be imagined as released
from the role of predicates of sentences through this centre
displacement and become alienated to a word class for relations
between different centra on the "periphery".
- Simultaneously the complex "properties" in
the sentence may be "chemically" precipitated
and get the character of adverbs and adjectives, when the
verbs have been abstracted from specific situations and
become generalized, and that which is substantival has become
designations as nouns.
("Twenty" words for snow becoming
one word for snow plus twenty adjectives!)
In agreement with the gradients that scientists talk about
in embryology but also in linguistics, two such gradients
could be identified in the development of a sentence:
- One from Meaning, the germ (as centre,
the point in bottom of one gradient triangle), in direction
outwards, divergent toward increasing breadth, a developed
sentence, differentiated in word categories and "words",
- The other in "lexical" direction
from outside (anticentre, the 00-pole), from single phonemes
and sequences of phonemes which can have represented a complex
meaning, towards longer sentences where the separate words
get an increasingly specialized sense.
The Meaning, the semantic sense, forms
its code through incorporation and structuring of material
from the surroundings.
We have two gradients in the ear: auditory
cells with nerves from the interior of the brain, and the
cochlea, created from outside.
The gradient with phonemes in the centre could eventually
be compared with the evolution of the blood system: from
single "island" drops - to threads of these -
to pipes, which then get curved through two-way directed
streams to the creation of bulbs and the heart pump.
Verbs - Nouns - Adjectives - Adverbs
Abbreviations for languages in first figure above:
IE = Indo-European
W.Lat. = West Latin
Old Ir. = Old Irish
Icl = Icelandic
Pr-Norse = Primitive Scandinavian
Anglo-Sax = Anglo-Saxon
Sw = Swedish