What characterizes life?
Life may be seen as a natural continuation of fusion in
the sun, outsourced to the planet (an "A-Z-illustration"
.here). The force that binds protons gets replaced by the
complementary force binding electrons. It's noteworthy that it's
the unsaturated atoms with shared lack in their electron shells
that build the main structures of life, not the self-sufficient
ones with surplus.
Life as continued fusion is not a merely banal
aspect. The covalent electron bonds as complementary seems to follow
the similar scheme as shown on this site:
genetic code shows astonishing numeral connections with
the 2x2-chain (x = 5-4-3-2-1-0) behind the periodic
with half this chain times 25 of some unknown reason.
(Scientists with interest in the field of applied mathematics are
invited to search for explanations!)
- The nearly universal genetic code agrees numerically still closer
with a variation of half the same chain: the cubic roots of 5-4-3-2-1
squared times 100 (the
- It could be remembered too that flowers have 5-4-3
number plans - surely of some fundamental genetic reason.
Life from inversions is another aspect proposed here. It
could be mentioned first that 2 times inversion of sum
of all integers 1-110 (110 = the sum of the 2x2-chain)
gives the sum of the amino acids from the genetic code as periodic
- The cell
appears as an inversion of an atom (H, hydrogen) - both regarding
forces and charge but also as it may be in a basic number
of its the genetic code from the inverted mass quotient proton/electron.
- As pointed to in files about biochemistry the inversion
of number 7 seems able to give a code for synthesis of substance
as fatty acids and collagen.
- One suggestion is that life could have its ultimate root in the
7 so-called "undeveloped" dimensions calculated with in
the String theory.
About geometries, biologists of profession
often give descriptions in geometrical terms. The same views here
are thus partly about highlighting and formalizing these aspects.
Biologists' explanations have most often been of the teleological
type: "Why 4 feet?" They are practical for land living
animals. (Yet some fishes got them already in the sea.) It's naturally
assumed here that the evolution contains more than random mutations
and "natural selection", and the fundamental view sides
with theories about a hidden "black box", here
suggested to contain a scheme of
the background model type or the like if simplified to fundamentals.
The individualization of life remains perhaps
the most difficult to understand Cells appear as a kind of "singularities",
as points of Zero and Infinity in the same place, 0 and 00
- 5 - 4 bases (from 2, inosine - orotic acid): G, A, U, C + T
- 5 x 4 amino acids (ams) with 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24 different codons
- 5 histones (proteins on which DNA-chain is rolled upon in chromosomes)
- Valences for essential elements of life: 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1; P
- C - N - O/S - H
- 5 C atoms in the A- and G-bases, 4 in U- and C-bases.
- 5 C in ribose, part of nucleotides.
- 4 - 5 rings in the porphyrins.
- 4 - 5 - 6 cyclic processes have been considered necessary for
Marquand asked how many chemical processes that a system should
be able to catalyze for it to count as life. Haldane suggested at
least 4, Marquand himself says 5 - 6.
Perhaps the most obvious and essential character in the structure-building
for life is the fact that it is performed by nonmetal atoms, characterized
by mutual lack in relation to the octet rule; this in opposition
to self-sufficient atoms and those with a surplus of e-.
It's mainly constructed of C-N-O, as if the carbon-nitrogen cycle
of nuclear fusion in the sun just continued, outsourced to planets
for transformation into external relations.
1. Life as the antithesis of entropy:
The way outwards in a dimension chain implies that structure gradually
gets translated into motions, ties as potentials get broken; it's
a trend toward increasing "disorder" according to views
in physical mechanics, equivalent with direction towards increasing
"entropy". (Yet, it may be discussed if the release motions
of macro- and microcosm in reality are disordered?)
Life implies a shift towards more structure, synthesis,
creation of links, well recognized as the antithesis to the law
Life processes involve both synthesis and disintegration
and can be illustrated by double-direction within the dimension
chain (with development of new levels proposed as perpendicular
to the basic chain).
2. Life a coincidence?
Life is here naturally postulated as a given result from "laws
of Nature", a virtual, built-in possibility under certain conditions,
not a random coincidence. It's assumed as a given result from the
development along the main axes through the level chain towards
increasing complexity. (See figure at end of this file.)
It's proposed that the most characteristic feature of Life could
be regarded in terms of "negative curvature inwards"
(cf. "involvement"). This in opposition to the eventual
negative - or rather antipositive - curvature of expanding vacant
space outwards in macrocosm, (This simply expressed as surfaces
growing faster than the cube of the radius.) About curvature of
macrocosm, see file here.)
Most obvious is this feature of antipositive curvature
turned inwards in the development of multicellular animal organisms
(see file Embryology)
but also in eukaryotic unicellular ones. The fast growth of surfaces
occurs inwards and results in multi-shell structures. Cf. the outward
growth of crystals for instance
(If a 5-dimensional unit, developing towards
growing superposed levels, shall get spatial form within 3
dimensions, much has to happen internally out of this contradiction
We could associate to the String
theory and its 7* so called "undeveloped" dimensions.
As a guess they could relate to the ordinary 4 developed ones of
ordinary physics in a similar way as mathematical "conjugates"
to each other. Perhaps be the very root of life!?
*(There are many ways to count dimensions.)
How the single cell first was created is still unknown but it may
be assumed that some kind of a substantiated center - anticenter
polarity between complex molecules had to be defined within which
the positive negative curvatures developed, expressed in
very general terms.
The turn inwards of the antipositive curvature could eventually
be connected with the pole exchange in last step of our model in
the dimension degree (shortened here d-degree) "0/00"
This redefines d-degree 5 in terms of pure kinetic energy and may
simultaneously imply a kind of feed back mechanism.
4. Life as self mobility:
The "negative curvature" inwards, the expansion internalized,
means more and more enclosed motions according to the model. One
characteristic of life. (Life to regard as time-loops internally
stored into spatial units - or spatial units transformed and fragmented
into "ten thousand" times?)
However, this would be only one part of the answer
to the "self mobility". The other has to do with the relation
between the single cell and its environment, center - anticenter,
0- and 00-poles of the whole.
5. Life as ½:
A living organism as the single cell is "haploid" (½)
relative the environment - as a center versus anticenter in the
big level chain leading to birth of a cell. This essential haploid
character concerns all internal levels and stages of development
in the cell. It's expressed as "needs".
"Needs" become potentials originating
from the primary polarization: cell - environment: potentials that
have been differentiated internally in a lot of different directions,
an intricate network of roads. Referring to our dimension model,
the elementary polarity cell - environment as 0- and 00-poles define
Direction, d-degree 4, polarized inwards/outwards;
that's forces for the interaction of living cells with the surroundings
such as inorganic matter, energy, water, air
Incorporating of elements from the surroundings
into the cell may be regarded as one aspect on life as developed
through negative curvature inwards. In another context we have expressed
the general principle as a stepwise building-in of the anticenter
pole into the unit defined as center.
One example is the incorporation of metal ions
in cell structures of non-metals, e.g. Mg in chlorophyll. Compare
too our hypotheses that such a principle also may concern atoms,
their structure depending on built-in vacant space. (If so, the
negative curvature inwards should perhaps not be a feature regarded
as restricted to what we generally call life.)
"Vacant" space can be defined as antimatter
on the atomic level, the environment becomes antimatter on the biological
In general terms the stepwise building-in of the
anticenter is a natural expression for the binding force between
The chemistry of life is characterized by more or less closed,
"cyclic" processes in communication with the outside world,
and a cyclic process, similar to rotation, means geometrically more
of one-way direction. Increasing one-way direction is assumed in
our model as one main feature in the development outwards of dimension
chains. It implies that directions become more and more specified.
It's a remarkable fact that not only cells but
also individual molecules can wander between others towards given
addresses - as people in a city on their way towards certain destinations.
The addresses of pathways can be interpreted as
a complex network of potentials from previous polarization steps,
which means that the molecules are linked on large distances via
underlying levels of space and time - similar to human memories
of past acquaintances and contacts in the past. Wandering of molecules,
governed by needs, becomes in this way also an expression for the
cell being "one half" on its plentitude of internal levels.
Finally, asymmetries become one result of complementary halvings
of dimension chains in steps towards more of one-way direction.
One example is the selection of L-amino acids among the genetically
coded ones in most organisms. An optical activity that involves
polarization - polarized light.
6. "Instinct" of self-preservation":
That which usually is described as the self-preservation force of
life can simply be the result of and expression for the binding
force between the organism and the environment as poles out of an
original whole: the organism as center one "half" with
navel string downwards the staircase of levels in Nature with bond
to the other half, environment as anticenter. The lower level is
binding force on the superposed one according to postulates in in
As is proposed about light
beams through empty space, the chromosomes (as "lumosomes")
complete themselves from environment, that's from what on their
level is "antimatter", i. e. the manifold of separate
complementary nucleotides, followed by polarizations. It's on this
level an expression for the same pattern as in an L-wave: → ← → ← → ←... Generations of cells appear as propagating waves,
propagation of quantified energy packages.
Besides this aspect on reproduction as succession, it's simultaneously
a manifolding of one cell to many, a repetition of the process with
divisions 1-2-4-8... in all directions. If it would be possible
keeping to the analogy of propagating waves, it would be necessary
imagining not only L-waves, in a certain sense linear, or T-waves
as in the same sense 2-dimensional but waves of a higher dimension.
(Compare perhaps where a photon exists on its way to a screen in
quantum mechanics? In some descriptions "everywhere".)
As far as scientists know, so far, all life springs from other life
- nowadays at least. Does then all life on earth derive from a single
first cell 3-4 billion years ago? It is a rather curious thought
that only a single point on the entire surface of the Earth would
give birth to a cell, assuming that the cell is a consequence of
laws of Nature. Similar chemical conditions must have existed in
many places. Amounts of cells can have come into existence that
were similar because the same natural laws were applied and the
same surrounding conditions. If so, it would be changes in the environment
that later made life depending on heredity. (Theoretically however,
the initial conditions for emergence of an entire cell should be
possible to produce in laboratories. )
8. Life as demarcated units
Demarcation, individualization, is a vital condition for life and
perhaps the most difficult problem in explaining the occurrence
There is in fact the same problem with the creation
of atoms from Big Bang (protons as packets of the assumed 3 quarks,
the 3 divided 2 plus-charged, one minus-charged, 5 →
4 → 3, the 3 divided
2 + 1). Hardly easier
Atoms and cells are building stones on very different levels. Underlying
levels represent higher d-degrees than the superposed ones and are
binding forces in relation to these (general view in the model).
It's logical that the H-atom becomes the original
first integrating force of the cell as polarized into H+
and e- (as d-degree 5 polarized into 0- and 00-poles
in the model, secondary binding and polarizing forces)..
A cell may in several respects be interpreted
as inversion of n atom (see further The
Inner, underlying level unity gets also according to the model
"inverted" to outer potentials, expressed as bonds, in
lower d-degree (as "polarized" photons in quantum mechanics?)
It's like the more fundamental history when fusion in the sun gets
outsourced and "inverted" to molecular constructions on
the Earth. The big step from the atomic level to a cell and outer
atomic relations implies an immense increase in degrees of freedom,
even if already a C-atom has several (cf. CO2
and the steps between sp3- and sp2-hybridizations).
One aspect on the problematic demarcation of cell
units becomes the negative curvature inwards as a reversal of the
relations mass - space, between elementary forces
FA - FG in macrocosm,
Mass built-in into Space, to Space into Mass in microcosms of cells.
Cf. in Embryology
the "blow up" of morula to a demarcating surface as a
step center to anticenter, followed by involutions.
About forces, protons and electrons, H+ and e-
that represent most of mass and most of space respectively in the
atom, become "carriers of forces", in the same sense as
bosons on the physical level (the assumed gravitons and photons
etc.) As responsible for elementary chemical processes and bonds
in cells they appear as poles 1a 1b (+ /
- ½) in last step of the model, defining the d-degree
in the dimension chain. The "pole exchange" in d-degree
0/00 implies also a kind of inversion
in fundamental directions.
With increasing complexity molecules as enzymes
and coenzymes become forces in the same physical sense on superposed
levels, polarizing - binding ones, "carriers" of the vital
Aggregations of micells as P-lipids during different degrees of
density has been studied in search for an answer on demarcation
of cells. Actually, inversions seem to characterize lipid layers
according to studies of lipids in later decades, different structures
with P-groups of the lipids inwards or outwards (Wikipedia).
This ability for inverting the structure seems
connected with the P-group, phosphorus with valence 5. With a dimensional
interpretation of valences the d-degree 5 is polarized in center
and anticenter and directions outwards/inwards
of d-degree 4 in our model. On the deep, atomic level the phosphorus
atom P with valence 5 could represent the basic integrating force.
Cf. the similarity between bilayers of P-lipids
and DNA-structure, see file The Cell.
9. Pure geometrical views on demarcation:
With the view that dimensions and geometries make up the basis
of Nature, the laws for quantification and demarcations become endogenous.
There is for instance such things as the observed and unexplained
polarizations in H2-clouds in macrocosm between
hotter and colder regions. In nuclei of atoms it's said that the
positive charge at fusion toward heavier atoms is built as in layers
from outside inwards. It could be examples of the anticenter pole
00 and inward direction (pole 4a), representing the polarizing and
quantifying force in the basic definitions of our dimension model,
a. In simple geometrical terms the step 3 →>
2 in the model (2 as the d-degree of surfaces) implies a polarization
of 3-dimensional volumes to enclosed/excluded
With a "haploid" view on a dimension
chain as developed between poles 0 and 00, the anticenter pole 00
of d-degree 4 may be regarded as debranched, (figure a below)
meeting "the other way around" from the end of the chain
in inward direction.
Postulated in the model is that pole 4a, inward
direction get "circular" structure when transformed to
Fig Li-5-1, Li-5-2, Li-3-6-1
b. The hypothesis that a dimension chain can correspond to angle
steps of halvings towards increasingly narrow angles leads also
to a nearly closed unit. Figure b. Cf. directions
of potential bonds as decreasing angles: C→>N →> O →>
(H). Such development of the 0-pole outwards in angle
steps may also illustrate life as "½" of
the whole and the living unit's communication with the environment.
(One could also assume such a process as endogenous
within single atoms, involving processes and structural changes
at the molecular level. One example is the sp3 →
sp2-hybridization of carbon.)
c. A different aspect on the creation of a demarcating cell membrane
concerns general conditions for level developments: It's suggested
in files about physics to regard level development occurring through
the middle step 3-2 in the dimension chain (see figure at end of
this file). One hypothesis is that such a development should demand
counter-direction from another, equivalent 5-dimensional center
for saturation to a superposed, more substantiated level (figure
c). Without such counter-direction the process 2 →
1 → 0/00
should only lead to repetition or energy lost to the external world.
It would be an interpretation in agreement with
Haldane's hypothesis about the cell as a fusion of two "half-organisms".
In a double cell-membrane the lipids meet
with directions outwards/inwards, that's
of Direction, d-degree 4. (Compare that orbitals of the same sign
bind to each other. Overlapping of inward directed magnetic circular
fields may eventually define a new center?)
A gradual substantiation through increasing complexity is of coarse
a necessary complement to geometrical models. What's only "field
lines", potentials or motions as pathways are to regard as
stepwise substantiated to molecular chains, to pipes, to organelles
etc. Foldings of "linear" proteins to globular, 3-dimensional
ones can illustrate increasing complexity. Saturation through incorporation
from other units is another factor that builds structures of high
d-degrees from lower ones (as 1 + 1 = 2, 2 +2 = 3!).
There is the similar processes on the level
of human society: That which begins as wanderer's pathway through
trackless terrain, becomes gradually a track, becomes a carriageway
with inns, becomes a highway through communities with entrances
and exits, etceteras.
The need to get from suburbs to inner city, to
and fro, becomes a drawing that gets materialized in a subway.
One example could be the periodic, linear arrangement
of filaments in collagen. Exactly how this works, in scientifically
accepted terms, is another question.
How could enzymes emerge, the very long protein
chains that effectively reduces the energy needed for a certain
reaction? An analogy to the industrial revolution of manual work
as it seems. The energy needed for a certain reaction without enzymes
is often illustrated as a curve, a hill. Rather than believe enzymes
as preexisting, it's easier to imagine them as substantiation of
this very curve, taken as a real mold, then inverted to a hole for
the key and lock relation to substrata. Enzymes are forces in the
cell, As substantiated to proteins they are a "matrix"
to substrata, in that sense complementary poles, the "antimatter"
on this level. (Something like magnetic fields in relation to electric
To store such a protein chain in the long term
memory of DNA should of course need a backward process from amino
acids to codons. (Or already, in some potential form, existed within
11. DNA coding amino acids:
Unique to life is DNA (or RNA) and the coding system DNA →>
proteins. See The
Genetic Code and The
protein synthesis and file The
Cell. Here only a couple of annotations.
As molecules amino acids represent a higher d-degree than the bases:
the tetrahedrons with a central C-atom may be regarded as center-displaced
(or "inverted") to the ring-bound C- and N-atoms in the
codon bases; a step from sp3- to sp2-hybridization
of the C-atom. It corresponds to a step d-degree 3 →
2 (or 4 to 3) outwards, from radial to circular structure. Conceptually
codes are also secondary in relation to what is coded, as the written
alphabet relative to spoken sounds.
With regard to the molecular structures, the relation could perhaps
be illustrated in a dimension chain as in the figure below: bases
as from intervals equivalent with debranched degrees meeting in
synthesizing direction the other way around
In valences, the phosphorus atom P represents d-degree 5 (or rather
something like a step 5-4 with one double-bonded oxygen).
N and O with valences 3 and 2 represent opposite
ends of backbone chains in amino acids (and opposite polarity in
charge*) - and bonds through H-bridges between complementary bases
in DNA (here also such N - N bonds, 3--3, in our model outer poles
in d-degree 2).
supposed developed in step 3 - 2 in our model.
In directions there are proteins outwards in the cell, structure-building
and transporting, RNA-, DNA- nucleotides inwards the center, towards
less mobility. (Cf. principle of stepwise building-in of anticenter,
the 00-pole, and the similar building in of the animal pole to a
nervous system in embryological development.)
One of the subject classes can serve as reference to the other
because they originate from the same basic structure (of the type
our 5-dimensional model here).
The figure above could be compared with numbers in the "ES-chain"
(from file The genetic code")
259 circa sum of 2 bound DNA-bases (G + C 262 - 2, A + T 261
752 x 2 = sum of side-chains of amino acids for 20 + 4 codons.
2(5 + 4 + 3) = 24 amino acids.
We have also that 292 = P~P-ribose bound (2 x 98 + 150 - 3 x 18)
and 252 + 208 = 2 x P~ ribose at which codon bases get attached
when constructed. Cf. a figure in S. Copley et al* (2005)
where such a pair of nucleotides are bound to a P~P-ribose group.
Their hypothesis is that amino acids originally were constructed
at the inner ribose which should imply at the center of the chain
in the figure above.)
*Copley S D, Smith E, Morowitz H J: A mechanism
for the association of amino acids with their codons and the origin
of the genetic code. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2005, 102:4442-4447.
12. Additional remarks:
- The physical quantities (rather qualities) and their transformations
into one another as a dimension chain are naturally given as aspects:
density - forces - mass/space
- charge - distance - time,
in accordance with definitions proposed in files on physics..
"Density" seen as the primary quality
in d-degree step 5 →4, polarized
in mass/space in step 4 →3. (Mass numbers become an underlying level in relation to
charge numbers for instance.)
- The underlying scheme and geometrical, mathematical rules that
is assumed with the model here, guiding the building of molecules
and organs on superposed levels could be imagined as changing between
d-degrees and levels in agreement with these. (And the processes
go further and further perhaps just because relations and numbers
don't become integers!)
Chemical processes could be apprehended as efforts of a fragmented
matter to solve the demand of the Whole, the "Entirety",
the ultimate binding force.
A level chain: