Biology / An elementary 5-dimensional model applied in different sciences
Evolution - Addition
- Subcellular level

A. Plants Animals:

1. This opposition between autotrophic and heterotrophic cells concerns the chemical level, appearing already among the prokaryotic unicellular groups.(These include autotrophic species that lived on energy from small molecules of non-metals as sulfur. Disregarded here.)
   Plants have both the photosynthesis with primary synthesis of carbohydrates and the respiration cycle, animals only the latter. Its a relation of double direction versus one-way direction, a polarization, one principal aspect on steps towards lower degrees in the dimension model.

2. The essential polarity of directions from 0 and 00-poles appear in the development of plants and animals:
- the growth outwards as from a 0-pole of stem and roots upwards and downwards - from the seed in plants,
- the growth inwards from a 00-pole, from anticenter of the blastula, vegetative and animal poles in animals:

      Fig Ev-add-1-166

Plants: divergence outwards. Animals: convergence inwards.

Cf. that the upward transportation in plants doesnt demand energy, while the downward transportation of synthesized material does.

The directions of embryonic growth can be related to definitions in last step of the dimension chain, motions from and to each other:

Fig Ev-add-2-193

3. A dimension d-degree (d-degree) step 4 to 3: plants; ↑ ↓, animals → .
In coordinate axes plants represent the vertical axis, while later classes of animals come to represent the horizontal one, parallel to surface of the ground: an angle step 180° → 90° as assumed in d-degree step 4 → 3; it may also be seen as a difference radial versus circular, poles 3b and 3a in our model, corresponding to the growth of vegetative pole versus animal pole of the animal embryo. These geometries could be compared with unicellular algae (autotrophic cells) versus bacteria:

- most algae grow in long unbranched or branched threads,
- bacteria more often solitary, round or staff- or spiral-shaped.

Hence, the growth of algae may reflect vector fields as d-degree 4, while next step to 3 implies individualization (~ rooms, volumes) to closed, separate forms, in step 3 → 2 transformed to tube forms and spirals (as from a 3-dimensional motion).
   As expression for a more high dimensional field level in plants we can also see their special type of symplasmatic cell contacts with cells that share cytoplasm via long projections without demarcating, separating walls (Kz p. 150).

4. Further, the communication in multicellular plants is chemical, based on molecules, while multicellular animals develop the electrical, ion-based system as well: a d-degree step associated with mass versus charge. In the dimension model here we have proposed the FA-FG-forces developed in step 4– 3, the electromagnetic force (FEM) in step 3 – 2.

One could ask if the difference in inner chemistry is the primary factor for the autotrophic plant cell - or possibly a secondary result of cell positions in relation to a water surface and sunlight, which have become "anchored" in the genes? Cf. that chlorophyll needs sunlight for fulfillment of its structure and the other metabolic way from porphyrins goes to animal hemoglobin.

5. Another elementary difference Plants Animals is the one in mobility. Most outer motions of plants are bound to their growth, besides adaptations to light. In animals the growing number of motional moments from polarization steps according to the dimension model gets trapped within them, become built-in within their "shells".
   The opposition may be associated with the polarity of directions: a dimension chain outwards as structures corresponds to an opposite chain inwards of motions ("debranched degrees" as external motions).


Fig Ev-add-3

Motions of plants is just expressed in their structural growth, in animals in their external mobility.

There are also similar structures built out and built-in respectively. The tree-like structure up- and down, turned outside-in in our lungs is one example, with their branches into alveoli. The backbone with the neural tube as a stem and brain as crown of a tree could be regarded as another example with the essential difference that a human brain with cortex also has circular networks: cf. circular geometry (pole 3a) from 00-pole, radial (pole 3b) from 0-pole in the dimension model.
   (Crown of a tree is a receiver of light, brain a receiver of light and other sensory impulses.)

7. The bases for classifications among animals have parallels among plants even if not used in the same way in primary systematics:
- Naturally 1- to multicellular organisms.
- Number of tissue layers has similarities with plants with 1 versus 2 cotyledons and with the division herbs trees: plants having only the primary growth of thickness, trees with also the secondary one and cambium as a kind of "mesoderm".
- The division between "thallophytes" and vascular plants corresponds most closely to the division between sponges or 12-layer animals versus 3-layer animals with differentiation of organs.
- The oppositions in directions between Proto- and Deuterostomia have obvious parallels in plants where seeds grow attached to either a central structure or peripherally in the ovary, or stamens developing either from inside or from outside. Such differences are given a systematic value in botany.

One rather curious thing, similar among plants and animals, is how their "extremities" develop, not from the center but with origin further out, just "under the skin": branches of trees with their germs up in the trunk and "arms legs" of animals built from near the surface, which also by the way is the case for "extremities" as cilia. Connections inwards primary centers seem secondary. (Fens and extremities for locomotion and/or catching of food could be compared with branches with leaves for catching of light and CO2).
   Is there anything that really proves that development is quantified in dimensional steps it should be such facts?
   (In the dimension model its a step from the surface, d-degree 2, to "linear" structure, d-degree 1: in the loop version connected with forces of d-degree 4, outwards -inwards.)

A direct parallel in evolution of plants and animals is of course the development toward more and more built-in and sheltered embryos: from spread of spores to gymnosperms to angiosperms in plants, from egg-laying species to mammals among animals.


B. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cells:

This division concerns the cell level, cells naturally here regarded as 5-dimensional units. Theories about the emergence of eukaryotic cells are dealt with in the end of file The cell, No. 11. Here some other annotations.

There are several parallels between this opposition and the features for classification among multicellular organisms:

- 1-cellular versus multicellular organisms: Colonies of cells exist in both prokaryotic cells (PKc) - and eukaryotic cells (EKc), hence a kind of cell contacts, (in the level chain corresponding to step 1 ← 0/00), but PKc remain unicellular while EKc type leads further to multicellular organisms.

- 1-, 2-, 3-layer animals: This division corresponds to number of membranes on the tissue level, only one (with certain reservations, Bc p. 290) in Prokaryotic cells, 2 to 3 in EKc with nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum appear as analogous to the 3rd layer (mesoderm) in 3-layer organisms. (Its also a parallel to blastula versus gastrula,)

- Coelom and body cavity differentiation: The several organelles within membranes within EKc are naturally a parallel to specialized and centralized organs on the multicellular level a 3-dimensional development in the interpretations here.
   However, in contrast to coelom there don't seem to exist any partial steps in the development of organelles among EKc (?), as if it immediately followed in d-degree step 3 - 2.

- Protostomia Deuterostomia: at least one certain feature appears as a parallel on the unicellular level: the observation that the cell walls at cell division is created from outside inwards in PKc, from inside outwards in EKc (Fb p. 31).
Other such oppositions are dealt with in file Centrioles - Cilia: the central but hollow tube of PKc flagella, the center - anticenter organization of cilia in cilia of EKc; transportation of building material in PKc inside this hollow tubule, in EKc on outside of the many microtubules: a polarization c - ac in cross-section.

Other differences:
- One is that PKc mainly breed through division, while sexual propagation is typical for EKc, which also have one macro-nucleus and one micronucleus for gene exchange (Ez p. 31) reminding of later polarization between sizes of eggs and sperms in multicellular organisms.
   Hypothetically this difference in reproduction could be connected with such a feature that the short peptides in membranes of PKc include both L- and D-forms of amino acids, while proteins of EKc have selected the L-forms, which mutually become complementary as the left hands of two persons.
   In can be regarded as a step of polarization, as between higher and lower d-degrees, e.g. 4→3.
   Built-in motional moments are also fewer in Prokaryotic cells, which for instance lack the streams in cytoplasm.
   About the ambiguity regarding center - anticenter roles and higher - lower d-degree of PKc and EKc in these features, see The Cell (No. 11). About different structures of flagella, see Centrioles.

The amount of DNA is increased in the EKc and probably as it seems in a hierarchical way: if all essential enzymes for life exist already in PKc as has been stated, then the increase in complexity must imply growing number of superposed levels in a hierarchy of genes. It seems expressed too in the cutting of mRNA before protein synthesis that appears in EKc (with introns in DNA) as a new feature in relation to PKc cells (Fc p. 169 f.). (Varying cuts should give different proteins from the same gene.)

Another increasing factor is aggregates of ribosomes:
Ribosomes that get aggregated by an mRNA in bacteria are usually circa 5 (Bc p. 79).
   Here again we have this number 5! (Cf. the 5 enzymes involved in dividing and copying of DNA (Roger Kornberg, Nobel prize 2007).
   In EKc the aggregates of ribosomes are often essentially more numerous.

Three domains, Archae, Bacteria, Eukaryotic cells:
Unicellular organisms are now divided in 3 domains, Archae, Bacteria and Eukaryotic cells,
Archae and Bacteria with blue-green algae are both PKc, while EKc get the inner 2nd to 3rd layers as from a new center in step 3 2:
- Archae have more similarity with central part of EKc.
- Bacteria more similarities with peripheral parts of EKc.

Below a draft of how the relations could be regarded in a dimension chain, naturally only a sketch built on some features only.

      Fig Ev-add-4

Some oppositions between the prokaryotic types (Wikipedia):

DNA level:
- Archae: central DNA have similarity with central DNA in EKc
- Bacteria: DNA is more similar to DNA of peripheral organelles in cytoplasm of EKc.
      Invaginated or immigrated (?) into EKc according to different hypothesis.

- Archae special own type with isoprenes (5C units, with side-chains, thus of higher complexity). Ether-bonds (stronger).
- Bacteria: membranes similar to EKc, fatty acids (linear chains, 2C units). Ester-bonds (weaker).

Glycerol in membranes:
- Archae: L-glycerol
- Bacteria: D-glycerol as in EKc..

Cf. Flagella;
Archae: central fiber bundles - build from the base.
Bacteria: hollow tubes - built from top.

The figure could give the impression that some kind of neoteny in Archae contributed to Eukaryotes, a preceding stage in its "embryology?



Levels of organization from Microcosm to Macrocosm, just an outline here.


© Åsa Wohlin
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series, made publicly available in year 2000

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