The Genetic Code - 17 short files Mathematical patterns in assignment of codons to amino acids
9. Chemical aspects on the distribution of codons

1.  Glycolysis and Citrate cycle: derivation of the amino acids:

                                                                     References: P.O.Karlson: "Biokemi", 1976.
                                                                    D.E.Nicholson: "Metabolic Pathways", 1976.

     Amino acids from the different stations:

   There are obviously two simple ways to Ala,
   from Pyruvate and from Oxaloacetate

   There is a bit unsure too, from which stations one ought to refer Thr and Meth
   along the "side way" via homoserine from Oxaloacetate.

2.  Mass number (A) distribution for R-chains of the 24 amino acids, 6 stations:

     Triplet numbers of a dimension chain: : 543 + 210 = 753

From the loop back from Oxaloacetate via Homoserine Thr is derived
which can transform into Ileu.
   This same loop connects Meth: Meth <==> Cys --> Ser --> Gly.
That is why Ser2 has been seen as derived from Oxaloacetate here.

With these options we have a halving (+/-1) of the total mass of ams, one half from glycolysis, one half from the citrate cycle inside the mitochondrias.

Number of amino acids and A-sums in the groups above:

According to the numbers we could probably also see the derivation way of ams in the opposite direction: from the key substance α-ketoglutarate, the C5-substance responsible for aminating the amino acids, towards oxaloacetate and outwards, to C4 and C3 substances.

Another key substance in the citrate cycle is Succinyl-Coa, which follows directly after α-ketoglutarate and leads to porphyrin rings: it could be said to mark the crossing point between the vegetable kingdom and the animal kingdom, between the Photosynthesis and the Glycolysis. We could presume that it marks a central point in a bigger loop or dimension chain.

We can also see the way from Pyruvate to α-ketoglutarate as a way of synthesis, that is directed inwards (as into the mitochondrias too), also meaning inwards higher dimension degrees in a chain.

3. Codons with U-base in 1st and/or 2nd position:

We should notice that all ams but Gly derived from stations in the glycolysis have the U-base in 1st or 2nd position of their codons, if we disregard the possibility of Ala deriving from Pyruvate; no ams from stations in the citrate cycle.

   This circumstance could possibly have connection with the fact that U (and T) as coenzymes (-TP, -DP-, MP-forms) are the active ones in syntheses or break down of carbohydrates.

Cf. numbers 27 and 8: √27/8 ---> inverted = 544,33105.. x 10^-1 in list-file 13.

4. Functional groups / "endings" in R-chains of the the amino acids:
    (Or typical atom groups.)

Besides the list above and the comment on the U-base codons, there hasn't been possible to find anything indicating a connection between chemical aspects of the individual amino acids and the distribution of codons. (This according to the scientists.) Collective mass numbers seem more governing, according to the papers here.

This grouping, differentiating only the nonpolar group CHx from the other ones,
connects to the triplet series 2 x (543 + 210) It could eventually reveal one figuration in the fairy dance of the amino acids ? (Cf. the position of C in relation to N and O on the page about "A-Z-"numbers.)

*543 — 432 + 321 + 210

(If Gly is put together with the nonpolar group we get 2 x 210, 2 x 543, -2.)



© Åsa Wohlin:
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series, made publicly available in year 2000.


Links and Notes

To the background model


Table 24 ams A, Z, N

- ways of writing -

List on 17 short files

The 17 files
as one document, pdf



Latest updated