Chemical elements


8-9. Mass views: 1H —238U, lightest - heaviest element in Nature

8. Uranium and Hydrogen, mass number connection:

The quotient between triplets 543 and 210 is about the same as between A and Z-numbers of U: 2,586. compared with 2,587. This number ≈22/3 + 12/3 is a number appearing in the genetic code, see in these files about the Exponent series.
N/Z-quotient of U ≈ 22/3

9. Fusion and fission:

a. Fission: The disintegration series of  238 U, 235 U and 232 Th:

A multiplication operator acting in the electron shells?

Orbital numbers 18-14-10-6-2 as sums of poles in d-degrees 5-4-3-2-l-0:
Fig. 09-1:

The point of this derivation of orbital numbers is that it makes it easier to imagine a potential dividing within the orbitals, p-orbital as 2 + 4 e-, d-orbital as 4 + 6 e- or 1 + 3 (= 4) + 6, f-orbital as 6 + 8 e- or 2 + 4 (= 6) + 8.

An angle change step from ⊕ to ⊗, from internal structural relations of type addition to multiplication in the e-shells, gives:

Through further division within orbitals the sum of the electrons gets 10 units higher.
The disintegration series of 238U from 92 Z to Pb 82 Z goes through
8 alpha-steps = - 16 Z: compare the change above in f-orbital from 64 → 48.
6 beta-steps   = +  6 Z: compare the change above in d-orbital from 18 → 24.

Compare from Physics:
f-orbital, from step 4→3: Mass identified as a property in this step. Mass reduction connected with alpha radiation.
d-orbital from step 3 → 2: Charge identified as a property in this step; beta steps implying change of charge.

Surely the distribution of electrons on different orbitals above will not correspond to that which the physicists observe - if they have time to observe what really happens ? !

The same type of operations for all three disintegration series: 238U, Uranium 235 and Thorium 232, 90 Z, suggestions:

235U: In this disintegration series we have - 28 A:
- 7 alpha-steps,
+ 4 beta-steps = - 14 Z, + 4 Z
β-steps in this series occur in first steps in one (1) β+-radiation.
According to the suggestion above there should occur an inner β+-radiation.
(Possible to detect? Eventual connection with its use as nuclear fuel?)

232Th, 90 Z: In the disintegration series to Pb 208 A we have - 24 A, - 8 Z:
- 6 alpha-steps,
+ 4 beta-steps = - 12 Z, + 4 Z.

One could of course ask why such changes in multiplication operations, (if so), should take billions of years.

Half-life times for 6 stations (of 15) in disintegration series of 238U:


b. The border between fusion and fission directions:

"The energy dale" - or from the opposite viewpoint the maximum of bond energy in the periodic system, is usually declared as about Fe, 26 Z, 56 A.
   Another statement points to a flat maximum of bond energy around 60 A: Ni, 28 Z has one isotope 60 A.
   A third statement says all elements above circa 150 A is a-emitting, i. g. elements about 62 Z.

One fusion /fission border (a secondary one) also appears about 46 Z (Pd):

46 Z is half of max. Z 92: Pd 106-108 A. This according to one older statement (Gamow).


c. Fusion:

"A-Z-numbers" of atoms illustrating two parts of synthesis:

If we take a dimension chain with superposed odd figure level and add 2-figure numbers vertically downwards, we get numbers as "A-Z"-numbers of primary elements:
Exemplified: 95+94 = 189, 94+74 = 168, 74 + 73 = 147 etc.


10-11. N-Z-relations - a couple of aspects


©Åsa Wohlin
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series, made publicly available in year 2000