Chemical elements


10-11. N-Z-relations - a couple of aspects

10. Neutrons and protons - a polarization:

a. Neutrons outside atoms "disintegrate" into protons and electrons and neutrino radiation. We have in this fact a polarization step from a neutral mass particle into charges +/-.

Neutrons seem to have analogous function in multi-proton nuclei as neutrinos in individual particles, sewing together the structure.
   As expressions for a binding force they could be associated to the higher d-degree in relation to a lower one according to general views or postulates in our model; where Mass and Charge as properties have been assumed defined in d-degrees 3 and 2 respectively. The postulates imply that Mass is a binding force in Charge as said above.

(It's said that according to some calculations the gravitational force (FG) related to Mass at first, after Big Bang, was equal in strength with the electromagnetic force (FEM) related to Charge - when counting with the whole Mass = 1. Perhaps comparable with the approximately equal number of protons and neutrons in the lightest elements (H excluded.)

In terms of the assumed quarks in the standard model, the polarization of neutrons means the up-quark becoming a down-quark, down-quarks becoming up-quarks in the proton, i. e. implying a total inversion of quark "directions" (dud → udu).
   This reversal could possibly be connected with the opposite directions in our loop model of the dimension chain, in thirds of charge units: (-1, +2, -1) → (+2,-1,+2).

Mass — Charge-relation (A—Z) for elements 1-20 Z ≈432 — 210.
(Triplet numbers from the dimension chain. N = 222 )

b. The quotient n/p increases towards heavier elements in the periodic system, from 0 →1 (H → He) to about 1,587 (~ 22/3). in Uranium 238.
   One aspect is the fact that smaller volumes have bigger surfaces in relation to the volume than bigger volumes. This means relatively more contact with the outer polarizing space (as 00-pole), hence polarizations of neutrons: n → p + e...

One suggested aspect here is to look at the relation N-Z as in some sense perpendicular, e.g. neutrons as intervals in relation to protons as borders: |—| p - n - p.
   They appear as matrices to (or pattern of relations between) the proton groups. Such a relation could be illustrated by "chess board" squares with crossing points representing protons, edges neutrons.
Fig. 10-1:

With the extra 1x1 square one get the sum 238 of Uranium
(Why an extra square? What should it represent?)

The N/Z-relation of 238U is closest to 8/5, the quotient at 4 x 4 squares.
   When 238U not disintegrates stepwise through a-emission but is splinted into 2 parts, the partition is about 2/3: mass maxima about 95 and 140: in Z-numbers: Ba 56 Z (A-number of isotopes 130-144) and Sr 38 Z (A-number of isotopes 84-95). Cf. the sum 94 Z above.

c. Development of the N/Z quotient in steps 5/5 → 5/4 → 4/3 → 3/2 → 3,2 / 2:

   Cf. chain steps of products:
   Fig. 10-2:

48/32= 3/2

   N/Z quotient at 209 - 206 A = 126-124 / 82-83 Z ≈32 / 21:
   3 —— 2 ——1
       32         21

d. 137 is stated as the quotient between the nuclear force (Fst) and the electromagnetic force (FEM) in strength (Gamow). This is the mass number at Z 56 (Ba) in the middle of the 2x2-chain, just after 5 shells in the periodic system.

e.. Maximal surplus of N in relation to Z:

    U  54 N (238 A)
    Bi 43 N (209 A)

f. Even /odd mass isotopes. Number of isotopes and N/Z-divisions:

According to one source there should exist 284 isotopes regarded as stable ones.
According to a Table on Physics one finds only 262 (of which 41 have unstable isomers).

Division of these 262 isotopes on even and odd numbers:

Figuratively the different groups could be illustrated as xn-curves, n = 4-3-2:
(surplus of N disregarded):

Mean value per isotope for the three bigger groups ≈109,56. . (for all four = 108,01.),
This is numbers around 110, the sum of the 2x2-chain related Z-distribution in the periodic system. It seems to connect the 2x2-chain with mass numbers too (?).

About the quotient 3/2 of three bigger groups:
Compare the total number series 1-238 (A) = 28441 (nearly the same sum as 28.258 of "stable" isotopes):

g1. Division of Z- and A-sums of 1-83 Z in quotients within a dimension chain,
elementary or in the 2x2form:
(A-sums more analyzed in Appendix.)

11. Two extra annotations:

1. A-number 5 and He - H:

Why the mass number 5 doesn't exist at all as an isotope may perhaps be answered with the suggestion here that 5 is the number for the whole, the beginning of all.!?

2. An inverse connection between the sum of the 2x2-chain and sum of 20 + 4
double-coded amino acids in the genetic code:



Appendix: More Numbers, pdf


©Åsa Wohlin
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series, made publicly available in year 2000