The velocity of light:
Why is the velocity of light c limited and
a constant in vacant space?
An answer could be that this constant
is a quotient, as the number πin Euclidean geometry between the circumference and the
radius in a circle. For EM-waves that "quotient"
would be the relation between E- and M-factors of the fields,
according to the views here. (Cf. the polarity radial -
circular of d-degree 3 in this model. M-fields closed, "circular"
field lines, electric fields open "radial" field
The velocity depends on the "medium"
(not on the source) and the "medium" is "Vacant
If the same aspect is applied to the "gravitation waves",
so difficult to detect, or sooner GA-waves, what says that
these waves should have the same velocity c ?
And why c2 in the expression E
= mc2 ?
A transversal wave marks 2 orthogonal coordinate axes. We
could see these as forming a coordinate system for the 2nd
d-degree, for surfaces, indicating an multiplicative operator.
With one of the axes representing inward
direction, corresponding to negative sign, we should get
+ c x
- c = - c2 (in ordinary mathematics)
the way back doesn't work, taking the root out of a negative
number. Hence, the imaginary number √ -1
(x c2) is introduced in mathematics.
We can imagine that the c2-factor
in Einstein's expression for the energy of Mass is inward
directed, that is the imaginary direction, built in into
the mass - as "inverted EM-fields" as written
on page about Mass
(More about Velocity as concept here.)
Some numbers (from 1973):
Distance scale, meter:
10+26: Middle 10+5,5
Φ atom nucleus Φ Universe
10+18 Middle 10-2,5
Time for light Age
to pass a
Quotient between middle of scales
10+5,5 / 10-2,5 = 108 ,
m/s, the 10-power of light.
[0,1 x (5x4x3x2x1)]2 , x (5x4x3x2x1) →
= 2,985984 x 108 ,
ca the velocity of light, 2,997925 x 108
A third note:
In a pentagon the inner angle is 72°. The root out of
72 is 8,48..., circa log c in meter/seconds. Gives c = 3,0569
2 % wrong.
What should the square root of an angle
represent ? ! Madness?
45°, (the assumed angle in d-degree 2):
Arctan 1/√ 45°
= 8,4787., closer to 10log light velocity 8,4768.
The length of a photon ?:
One quantifying of EM-waves is the wavelength. But the
quanta of EM-waves, the photons, is another question.
What quantifies them? How much light, how many meters of
light makes a quantum, a photon? Or how many wavelengths?
According to only oral information there
has been experiments to measure the length of a photon:
two light beams were sent parallely into a box with two
slits. If they have the same starting time and velocity
they allow interference, they give a common wave pattern
on the screen in the box.
If one of the beams is delayed by passage
through a staff of glass, in which the light velocity is
about 2/3 of that in vacuum, the interference between the
beams ceases, if the delay corresponds to circa 1 meter
Presumably the length of the photon depends
on the wavelength? In the experiment visible light was used
(wavelengths between 4000 - 7000 Å). In the meter
system the number of wavelengths per photon becomes the
inversion of the wavelength if the photon is 1 meter.
Could this relation of inversion between
number of wavelengths and photon length - if about 1 meter
- reveal a principle from the world of mathematics underlying
the physical world? Perhaps it is both obvious and natural?
A certain amount of bound energy in the atom, released and
translated to a certain number of crossings of the "E0"-line?
[If number of wavelengths in a photon of 1 meter is 102π
, the wavelength will be 5210 Å, near the value where
the human eye has its best color sensitivity (circa 5300
Å). 2 π, the circumference
of the unity circle, as a log number.]
Hypothesis about polarization between radiation
of longer and shorter wavelength:
A quantitative degree of difference between radiation of
different wavelengths turns over to a qualitative structure
difference under certain conditions turns over to a complementary
polarity with features of the type
- center /anticenter, 0/00
- outwards / inwards direction
- radial /circular
Condition for this: a coupling between the radiation waves
- and energy or frequency relations corresponding to certain
d-degree or level steps.
Could we imagine - most tentatively that for
instance longer wavelengths can have a "gravitational"
or aggregating effect on shorter ones, shorter wavelengths
an "electromagnetic effect" - or integrating and
differentiating on longer ones?
"Lissajou's figures" are created
by bodies oscillating in two directions. Wave motions with
wavelengths in integer relations to each other give closed
We could eventually turn this geometry
the other way around and presume that waves which interfere
in this way can give rise to bodies as closed figures? A
4-dimensional "meta-wave" field through step 4→ 3 give closed material bodies. (Cf. MEGA-fields,
In astronomy one has observed strong sources of radiation
in the radio frequency range beside a star: Can eventually
a polarization between frequency ranges (radio versus visible
light) be a part of the explanation? (Cf. human ears on
the side of the head, eyes in front!)
Within plasma physics,with its innumerable wave phenomena,
perhaps some wave types, geometries and discontinuities
more generally could be explained with the hypothesis here?
Different frequencies of radiation emanate from
different (quantified) shells, levels, angles etc. in the
atom. It seems very natural if these different frequencies
take part in angle polarizations of molecule structures
to complementary chemical roles and other such polarizations:
revealing and reshaping the geometrical
and "quantum number" differentiation of its origin
in atomic shells.
The organization of the retina would be one example - and
its interpretation of complementary colors.
As a parallel on superposed levels: energy differences of
certain degrees in nerve signals would lead to a complementary
"casting" between nerve cells
Concerning vibration frequencies we have
the fact that certain frequencies give resonance in different
organs of the human body.
There are the so called "window effects"
too: that biological organisms seem to be sensible to radiation
in certain spread regions of the wavelength scale. This
should eventually be possible to explain with the hypothesis
on changed angles at certain quotients between wavelengths?
Meteorology and the like
In meteorology as a superposed level there are some
phenomena, which have been considered difficult to explain,
and which perhaps could be interpreted in terms of this
hypothesis (even if explanations in other physical terms
simultaneously would be possible):
Currents in water and air (wind) are not primarily "waves"
but their relative velocities could be a real analogy to
frequency relations of EM-waves and other oscillations.
- Smaller circular sea currents has been discovered which
has been difficult to explain (evidently then not a result
of the Coriolis force). Quantitative differences in velocities
but also in temperature and density could possibly lead
to a polarization between a tangential and a circular current
during certain conditions.
- The same seems to be valid for tornados - with air as
structure carrier, where there seems to be an angel change
from horizontal currents to vertical.
- The "polar front" over the North Pole shoots
down from the pole 4-5 tongues of cold air, (cf. 5 steps
in a dimension chain !) This wave front pendulates to and
fro with a period of 4-6 weeks, the so-called Rossby waves.
From the wave-front "cells"
of air are tied off, isolated air masses as centers of low
pressure and high pressure. Perhaps the hypothesis above
is illustrated in this geometrical development - as well
as in the angle relation between warm and cold fronts within
a low pressure cell?
Hypothesis about "side waves" in EM-fields:
A transversally swinging string generates
longitudinal "side waves" in the air. In the same
way an electromagnetic wave, where half of the wavelength
gives the picture of a swinging string, could be thought
of as generating longitudinal waves in the surrounding "empty"
space, laterally around the propagation way of the electromagnetic
The condition would be that each motion gives rise to a
countermotion, in the same way as each force has a counterforce,
which we can assume.
Another condition is that "empty
space" is not an undefined "nothing" but
a that kind of "negative" energy which we have
assumed in other chapters hear, and can be graded, even
if it is the plus-energy that grades it.
A third condition would probably be that
"vacant space" as medium is totally unplastic
("elastic") in its negative property (!) , which
it reasonably should be (in spite of Einstein's view)?
From a circular radiating source, for example
a star, the longitudinal "side waves" should be
more or less circular, separating radii of maxima and minima.
Such side waves could also be compared with the interference
pattern, like longitudinal waves, which an EM-wave give rise
to after the passage of slits in a screen:
Cf. leaf nerves and leaf cell domains.
What else could actually explain such interference
patterns in radially spread light beams, interference seen
as the typical character of the "wave" property
According to general principles too in this
dimension model it should be possible to find more high
dimensional waves as components in wave types of other d-degrees,
such as L-waves in T-waves.) If we could presume such "side
waves", they should in some way be connected with "gravitation
waves", at a guess ? Or at least constitute a component
Nearest the light source or center should the vectors in
the "negative" energy of empty space not have
room enough or should "overlap" each other. What
happens there? Some type of bonds through overlapping? Definitions
of new centers (as gravitons)? Extinction - in the nearest
(If the linear propagation
of an EM-wave demands room sidewise for at least 1 longitudinal
wavelength in empty space, and the empty space field
was restored through each step of propagation of the EM-wave,
one could imagine that some type of "overlapping"
or bond in the extreme near field hampered a restoration
- and with that also the further linear propagation of the
EM-wave. This could in that case possibly be a way to interpret
celestial bodies which are so dense, with gravitation so strong,
that not even light can escape ("black holes") ?)
Some sketched notes with question marks
Source of information from the 1970th forgotten.
Phase waves originate from a phase displacement between
2 other waves (as electromagnetic waves or waves as variations
in current, charge or voltage
).They can be described
as a result of polarizations in angles, when waves are viewed
as projected) from vector rotation in a unity circle.
One example: When a light wave is polarized, a phase displacement
arises between the right and left polarized light wave,
which gives a phase wave as an "illusory rotation",
"Faradays rotation". This is still another polarization
in a light wave, which gives the phase wave.
- In a single light wave we have the phase displacement
of 90° between the electric and the magnetic vector
fields. If this description is correct (preceding
page) , we could ask if not ordinary light waves
could be seen as phase waves too, on a deeper level?
- The phase waves here, as expressions for relations between
two other - but usually "similar" - waves, represent
a relation and a connection between these.
- It seems as something like a parallel to the two polarizations
between 1) opposite charges as proton-electron (cf. M-E)
and 2) as pairings between electrons (and protons?) of opposite
The "illusory rotation" in a
polarized light wave is also called its spin.
We have also the fact that α-particles
have the resulting spin 0, which should imply that the 2
protons - and neutrons - should have opposite spins - as
a principle for pairing. (How about H2-molecules?)
Other bits of information:
- A phase wave has also been described as motion of a point,
i.e. of a 0-dimensional entity.
- Phase waves can have velocities both less and higher than
c, the velocity of light.
- They approaches zero (0) at absorption, approaches
infinity (00) at "cut off".
It sounds as if we could presume some kind
of a connection of phase waves with the last step 1→
0/00 in our model here, a step towards "motion as such"
- and a relative history, that is: a history
of relations - as all other potential lines in Universe...
Step 1 in this model , polarized into poles 1a
1b, identified as
1a: converging "movements towards each
other", defining a zero, a secondary 0-pole.
1b: diverging"movements from each other",
defining an anticenter, a secondary 00-pole.
A 4-dimensional, radial vector field between first center
and anticenter (0 00) contains all thinkable
phase displacement, as angle steps between vectors. All
these angle steps could be thought of as potential phase
waves - realized through rotation of the vector fields and
following steps in the chain to the last d-degree of Motion.
"Cut off" is possibly equivalent
with a break of the coupling or relation between the two
carrying waves The waves following separate courses defines
an anticenter The velocity of the phase wave goes towards
00 (~ anticenter)?
Concerning velocities, could we eventually (?) see a scheme
[Group velocity seems to concern "wave packages",
and particles with mass are sometimes viewed and analyzed
as such. In this model Mass is presumed to be identified
in d-degree 3 and charge as a property of particles in d-degree
According to some information group velocity
should be the derivative of phase velocity. If this is correct,
it sounds a bit back to front, even if it fits in the scheme
above. The light velocity should then be the last derivative,
the constant c?
More bits of information:
- Phase waves can have negative velocities. Perhaps equivalent
to say that their direction is inwards, towards higher d-degrees
or underlying levels, according to the views in this model.
- Their equations can give imaginary roots. These roots
should then be possible to discover in other revelation
- Phase waves can be absorbed. Or reflected towards a too
"Negative" direction, interpreted as inward direction
in this model (cf. other pages) and coupled with imaginary
factors indicates that phase waves also are included in
matter. Externally 3-dimensional bodies
created out of 4-dimensional space-time fields. Compare
how a 4th dimension in 3-dimensional bodies have been illustrated
as built-in "holes" of different forms.
In matter, if analyzed as sewed together
by "inverted" fields, "curled lines, stratified
shells" etc., with multidimensional motions, there
ought to be a crawling with phase waves!
Matter itself could eventually be interpreted
as "phase waves", a network of relations between
polarized (and "inverted") 4-dimensional field
lines, according to the postulate that level of analysis
Between the so called "field lines" in the magnetic
field of earth for instance there could exist phase
waves in their mutual relations ? These waves could eventually
be revealed in the incorporation of cosmic particles:
With the dimension model follows the aspect
or postulate about a gradually increasing substantiation,
from dimensions to fields to matter etc., through counterdirection
from other dimension chains. Therewith also growing centers:
from points to elementary particles to atom nuclei
Between the so called "field lines"
in the magnetic field of earth for instance and variations
in these, there could exist phase waves in their mutual
relations ? These waves could eventually be revealed in
the incorporation of cosmic particles.
Hence, captured elementary particles
and nucleons in the magnetic field, spiraling around the
field lines, should be possible to interpret as "the
motion by points" in phase waves - on a superposed
Inside bodies, within biology and in the nervous system,
there should exist a lot of phase waves and phase displacements,
absorption or "cut offs", responsible for biochemical
reactions, with molecules perhaps as the "points"
. Hunger for example could be such an expression for growing
According to new information this seems
also to be a common view in biochemistry.
Phase waves don´t carry any energy, according to
fundamental physics. That´s why they can have velocities
higher than the light velocity, without contradicting the
law - or Einstein's postulate - that c is the maximal velocity
in nature - implicit: for transition of energy or "information"
This statement that phase waves don´t carry energy
could as a suggestion be connected with the interpretation
of phase waves as motion in d-degree 0/00.
The main axis in a dimension chain, the
axis of the quantum jumps has in this model been assumed
to represent an "E0"-axis or E0-line. Energy 0
(The energy of EM-waves for example defined as proportional
to number of passages of this E0-line. (per time interval
= frequency. Or by distance to this E0-line (potential energy
The motion of the point, characterizing
a phase wave, could in that case be thought of as occurring
along this main axis.
(Another, contradictory, formulation of this lack of energy:
If the phase wave is described as motion by a point on the
circumference of a unity circle, in opposition to waves
generated by vector rotations in this circle, it implies
that the point is moving along the anticenter of the circle,
never has contact with the vector center in the middle.
The phase wave spiraling around the E0-line never crosses
The aspect of information:
It is said, a bit vaguely, that phase waves don´t
mediate any information, as not conveying any energy.
Information is usually quantified (as
in connection with data) in "bits" or number of
polarizations, options at ramifications.
Hence, we could believe that a phase wave
as expression for 1 polarization, i.e.,phase displacement
between 2 energy-carrying waves, should at least give 1
bit of information - about just this phase displacement
Information out of polarization as ramifications means
information about couplings between different units or poles.
A phase wave is such a coupling between 2 waves, isn´t
it? Especially should the relations between different phase
waves be able to mediate much information?
Thoughts as phase waves or relations between these?
The thought reaches the furthest limit of Universe on less
than a second, while the light needs billions of years.
Only a phase wave should manage that, shouldn´t it
* This view seems today (and perhaps since long?) accepted:
phase wave modulation is used for transition of information
besides frequency and amplitude modulation.