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Fatty acids and lipids

Some general aspects:

1. Main feature of the process from carbohydrates to fatty acids implies the excluding of oxygen while storing H2. One suggestion below is to think of this process, the creation of enclosing barriers, as a result of steps toward lower degrees in a a dimension chain.
   The aspect on elementary atomic masses gives the order O-N-C from higher to lower mass (cf. the opposite direction in the carbon-nitrogen cycle in the sun, carbon → nitrogen → oxygen , minus alpha, back to carbon, and "A-Z-numbers").

The excluding of water, A- and Z-numbers in the process: numbers in the 2x2-series:

(Mass a property in d-degree 3 in relation to Charge as a property assumed in the model as defined in d-degree 2.)

2. Fatty acids, bound to Glycerine (Glycerol), build the cell membranes,
(together with P-groups, P for phosphorus). The macrostructure of a membrane may illustrate d-degree 2 and 1.
   Glycerine as "the backs",
   - binding 2-3 fatty acids as 1-dimensional zigzag chains turned toward one another,
   inside-outside as opposite poles:

Fatty acids with glycerine build the barriers to a water environment, that's surfaces and as such 2-dimensional on a macro-scale. The same character is reflected in the synthesis of the fatty acids, if we may regard the number of C-atoms as expressions for d-degrees, roughly an addition of C2-pieces.
   In the loop model of our dimension chain

the debranched degrees from steps 5 - 4 - 3 are meeting the other way around; the d-degree step 4→ 3 correspond to d-degree step 2 ←1 and 3→2 to a kind of half step back 3 ← 2.

At the same time (compare step 4 → 3 in the figure) the fatty acids as "linear" have the character of 4-dimensional vectors in opposite directions. The membranes with glycerine, illustrate also the geometrical poles 3b versus 3a of d-degree 3, radial versus circular form.

The division of C6 into to halves C3 reflect the polarization of the complementary character: one half, Glycerine C3, as forming part of the circular structure, with feature from the 00-pole (ac) and inward direction, and one half further transformed outwards during glycolysis to Pyruvate C3, from which one branch leads to Acetyl~, C2, and the synthesis of fatty acids, the radial part of membranes, with feature from the 0-pole (c) and outward direction.

In number of C-atoms:

Glycerine versus Malonyl~ (from Pyruvate) as 3a---3b-poles in d-degree 2:

It could be noted that Pyruvate represent the border to the citrate cycle, and the glycolysis in relation to this cycle as whole processes have also the geometrical character of radial versus circular.
   The bifurcation of the way for Pyruvate, into the citrate cycle with + C1 in direction of synthesis to keto acids and amino acids, and outwards to Acetyl~, C2, to fatty acids, represent a main division in classes of substances and their role in cells, with similar geometrical complementarity on that level.
   The fact that Acetyl~ also enters the citrate cycle (with an OH-group) after a couple of steps (forming isocitrate) seems as an obvious example of the views in the loop model above.

The transformation from Pyruvate to Malonyl~ implies that the COO-group is moved to the other end of the C3-chain:

Pyruvate and Malonyl~ uncharged.

This displacement may be regarded as an essential expression for the change of direction in the loop model above, here from outward fragmentation direction toward the synthesizing inward one

3. The synthesis of fatty acids in detail:
It starts with C2, Acetyl~ (CH3-C=O ~).
   Another Acetyl~ C2, +C1 forms Malonyl~, C3 (COO-CH"-C=O ¨) , which is attached to another site and the first C2 (Acetyl~) moves to bind with this, debranching the C1- (COO-group) of Malonyl~. Compare the dimension chain:

Since the "outer poles" (or partial structures) of d-degree 2 and 1 is 3a/3b and 2a/2b, the illustration of the process could be imagined as moved to step 2-1 and connected with the a-poles for instance.

   (+/- Cl: polarization of signs +/- in step 2-1 as a parallel to
   the polarization of charges in p/e on the atomic level?).

In the dimension model d-degree 3 have the "outer poles" 4a --- 4b, d-degree 2 the poles 3a -- 3b.
   We may note - as a coincidence? - the mass numbers of Acetyl~ and Malonyl~ :

   *86 = Malonyl~ charged: C=O — CH2 — COO-~


4. The synthesis as a process of repetitions:

The synthesis of the fatty acid chains: /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/COOH
is a process between Acetyl~ (C2) and Malonyl~ (C3) with removal of C1.
    Keeping to the vector character of d-degree 4 in fatty acids, the multi-enzyme complex with two S-binding sites where the synthesis takes place could illustrate an oscillation between poles 4a and 3a.
   Connecting the dimension chain with angle steps in a circle, the division to d-degree 4 implies a division to 180°, in next polarization a division to 90° - according to our first assumptions in the model. Positions at 180° and 90° seem possible to connect to the S-binding sites.

The multi-enzyme complex as structure giving a picture of angle steps through a circle:

a. Acetyl~ , (C2), gets bound to site 4, S in the R-chain of Cys (47-1 A).

b. Malonyl~, (C3), gets bound to site 3, S in Pantetheine, (358 -1 A), part of HS-CoA
c. Acetyl~ connects to C number 2 in Malonyl~ at site 3, and the COO-group     of Malonyl~ is debranched.
    This combination C2 + C3-piece gives virtually a C5 piece, immediately divided
    C5 →C4 - C1: cf. first step in the dimension model with 1 d-degree debranched.

d. The C4-molecule gets moved back to site 4 (3 → 4) and

e. A new Malonyl~ gets bound to site 3. Etceteras.

It's Acetyl~ that moves "outwards" to site "3" and as 2 x C2 inwards again to site "4"; cf. the vector character of directions, while Malonyl~ (from C2 + C1) always takes position at site 3. The "vector" growing through substrate from lower d-degrees ("anticentre").

The COO-group of last Malonyl~ becomes the "head" of the fatty acid.
(It seems logical then that the coupling with glycerine follows.)
   Hence, the synthesis starts from the end of the fatty acids, which become double directed towards one another in membranes, and this agrees with the interpretation of sites in d-degree terms, d-degree 4 within membranes in the double membranes.

Outer poles in step 3 - 2 = 4a/b - 3a/b. In the 2x2-chain (50 - 32 - 18 - 8 - 2 - 0) the step 4 - 3 corresponds to interval number 14, the CH2-pieces, and 2 + 8 + 18 = 28, the CH2-CH2-pieces.

5. Why are C18 and C16 most common fatty acids, 8 or 9 C2-pieces?

Most common fatty acids in animal life:

   33 % palmitic acid, C16, saturated: C15H31COOH = 256 A
   17 % stearic acid, saturated, C18: C17H35COOH = 284 A
   35 % oleic acid, unsaturated, C18:1: C17H33COOH = 282 A

One aspect: The process towards C18 implies C2 + 8 x C3 (Malonyl) = 26 C = 18 + 8, minus debranched 8 C1, rest C18. (?)
   Or: one pole of d-degree 4, represented by number 32 in this chain, = 16. (?)

Another answer to the question could eventually be connected with the "E-numbers", the sum of poles in the dimension chain - if the difference of 2 in the steps here may represent C2-pieces. The process as occurring in step 4 - 3, including all lower degrees, as double-directed to and fro (0 → 1 →2 →3 → 4 →3 →2 →1 → 00), gives 2-4-6-8-10-12-14-16-(18), counting from d-degree 0/00 with E-number 2.

The fact that double-bonds as in C18:1 appear in the middle of the CH2-chain could in that case depend on the d-degree 4 representing double-direction.

An alternative could be departing from the intervals in the 2x2-chain, reading Cn-numbers to and fro as with these intervals: Also here double bonds appear in the middle:

Number of C in the phases:

In steroid figurations C16 and C18 = C24, minus C8 or C6 respectively, one gets following structures:

6. Some numbers:

The process in detail with mass numbers, addition of one C2-piece (CH2-CH2) = 5 steps:

43            + 86              - 44       + 2       -18       +2 = 71
Acetyl~    Malonyl~    -CO2    + 2H    -H2O    +2H

Mass sum of 9 stages of synthesis to a fatty acid C18, (bound, without end-group OH):

Z-number for 9 stages, with +1 for bond to S:
24 - 40 - 56 - 72 - 88 - 104 - 120 - 136 - 152 = 4,5 x 176 = 792, couples added in the same way. (Cf. number 176, ½ x 352, middle 3-figure number in the chain below.)
   Sum 792 = 18 x 44 is interval between the triplet series outwards and inwards of the elementary chain 5 - 0: (543 + 432 + 321 + 210) - (012 + 123 + 234 + 345) = 792.

π-number involved?
π connected with the geometry of "spherical" membranes?

The superposed chain to the elementary one:

  Some mass numbers of triglycerides:

Maximum with 3 C18:          890 A
Minimum with 3 C16:           806 A
2 C18, 1 C18:1:                    888 A
1 C18:1, 2 C16;                    832 A

With P-group (uncharged) and only 2 fatty acids:

2 C18:               704 A
1 C18, 1 C16:   676 A (18+8)2, middle numbers 18 + 8 in the 2x2-chain

A P-lipid charged, 675 = 3 x 225 (≈ 2/3 x the sum of the exponent series 1011 (see about amino acids.)

Number 273:

Mean value for the 3 fatty acids, C16, C18, C18:1 if charged = 273 A.
Compare mean value for 2 unbound amino acids = 273 A.

Transformations between number-base systems (nb-x):

   256 in nb-10 = 1104 in nb-6        = 3 x 368.
   284 in nb-10 = 1152 in nb-6        = 3 x 386

2(368-1) = 734 and 2(384 +1) = 770: this is the sum of the two codon type groups of amino acids (side-chains). (Amino acids)

Z-sums for fatty acids = mass of G- and A-bases in the genetic code:

   Z-number for stearic acid C18 = 151, the mass number of the G-base in codons.
   Z-number for palmitic acid C16 = 135, the mass number of the A-base in codons.

Tha's when the fatty acids are bound, i. g. minus OH in the COOH-groups.

Numbers from a dimension chain, similar to the Z-A-numbers of Uranium:

Glycerine and a fatty acid C16:

C16 - OH = 256 - 17 A = 239 A
Glycerine - H = 91 A

Cf. triplets in the elementary number chain inverted:

  92 x 2 /\ = 543,47 x 10-5
238 x 2 /\ = 210,08 x 10-5.

238 and 92 the A- and Z-numbers of Uranium.



1/7 - Fatty acids, part 2, collagen and other substances

© Åsa Wohlin
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series in Swedish, made publicly available in 2000.