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The chemical elements of life

Application of views from the dimensional mode:l
(With some repetitions from other files.)
See also file The cell, first pages.

There are 5-6 elements primarily which build up the main structures of life as lipids, carbohydrates,.proteins and nucleic acids. The number worth noting.

                 H - C - N - O - P - S      in order of weight

Valences :

                 P - C - N - O/S - H

                 5    4    3      2      1         as numbers in a dimension chain.

P, with valence 5 in phosphate groups PO4 (to ~PO3) has a special function as a "binding force" in the other main substances - for instance in the DNA-spiral and in phospholipides and as energy storage in ATP. These functions could give arguments for interpreting the valence number 5 as an expression for dimension degree (d-degree) 5 as a first binding force. (See further P-groups below.)

In whch sense can the valence numbers represent d-degrees? Elements has been regarded as developed in step 2 - 1 in the underlying fundamental dimension chain, With development of a new dimension chain in this step (according to the principle of level development in this model) the different secondary d-degrees could be expressed linearly, that is in terms of d-degrre 1 - as valences, a number of potentially bond directions.
   (In relation to properties of the fundamental chain --> Direction (vectors) --> mass/space --> charge --> distances , it would perhaps be possible to regard the C-atom as an expression for the vector character in directions (in its building of C-skeletons), and O-atoms as an expression for charge, but hardly the N-atoms in any certain sense related to the property Mass or Space!)

A figure connecting P---O and C---N, with the loop model of the dimension chain and "outer poles" indicated, here as valences:

Here the poles represent valences but the d-degrees the polarization of 5 in 4–1, and 3–2.
  In the fundamental chain of the model mass and space are assumed as d-degree 3 in relation to Charge as a property defined in d-degree 2. One could here see the uncharged C-atom as the space-building one, while N and O represent charges, in opposition to one anotheter: N plus as inward direction, the O-atom the negative charge as outward direction. So for instance in the peptide bonds (NH3 --- COO-).

Direction around the atoms:
The division of bond directions around the atoms seem to illustrate dimension steps:

C-atom: bonds 4 →3 + 1, e. g. the tetrahedron configuration in amino acids.
N-atom bonds: 3 →2 + 1, e. g. in peptide bonds or when bound in rings of bases.
O-atom bonds: 2 →1 + 1.
   (The bond directions become stepwise more polar in order C → N → O,)

The P-atom with 4 O-atoms, one oxygen double-bound, crosswise distributed, seems to illustrate the step 5-4, 4 directions outwards, one complementary inwards, as illustrating a still unpolarized d-degree.
   It ould be noted that the Z-number 15 of P-atom is the sum of poles in the dimension chain 5 -4 - 3 - 2 - 1.

Classes of substances:
The elements may be regarded as characterizing main classes of substances, connected

   N with proteins (and coding bases),
   O with carbohydrates,
   H (in CH2) with lipids.

These classes could in some sense on a macro-scale level be regarded as equivalent with (~) following d-degrees in the cell:

   lipids ~ surfaces, 2-dimensional,
   carbohydrates ~ volumes, 3-dimensional,
   proteins then ~ vectors, 4-dimensional.

Hence, as characterizing macro-molecules, the valence numbers of the atoms N - O - H as 3 - 2 -1 are increased 1 d-degree.

The elements H-C-N-O-P-S represent shells K-L-M, shell numbers 1-2-3 in the periodic system, and orbitals 2-1, 1-0/00. Inversely we could regard these shells - from inside outwards in the atomic structure, as steps 5-4-3 in the chain of processes.
   With debranched degrees meeting "the other way around, step 5 → 4 gets represented by the K-hell, step 4 → 3 by the L-chell; both views are possible.

The 2x2-chain behind the periodic system:

     5       4        3       2      1 
   50 — 32 — 18 — 8 — 2 — 0   numbers for additions to whole shells
             P        N      L      K           whole shells
                       O      M
      ( x)      f         d       p       s     orbitals, intervals in numbers of electrons

C-N-O-atoms belong to L-shell and the p-orbital in step 2 - 1, P and S to the M-shell of higher d-degree..
   In the dimnsion model higher d-degrees are defined as binding forces in relation to lower ones and it could be observed that P and S in the 3rd shell appear as elements with binding properties on a higher, more complex level in DNA-RNA (P-atom) and among proteins (S in the amino acid Cys, creating S-S-bonds in the folding of proteins).

Covalent bonds:
The covalent kind of bonds give the structures in living organisms. These bonds of the elements imply "shared shortage" in relation to the "octette rule". Number 8 in the outmost shell represents a complete surface. Cf. number 8 in the 2x2-chain at x = 2; in the dimension model d-degree 2 for surfaces.
   It's worth pointing out that it's not complementary poles (atom kinds) that bind to each other here but more or less similar ones, giving counter-direction mutually (→ ←) seen. (The degree of covalent bond beeing 60-100 %.)
   About metal ions, see further below.

Some numbers:

  h. "A-Z"-numbers of elements:Number readings downwards with additions:
  95 + 94 = 189, 94 + 74 = 168 etc.:

This "A-Z"-chain may illustrate the two main fusion processes: the right half the first elementary fusions from e.g. D to He to Li... (with steps between dismissed), the left half the carbon-nitrogen cycle in the sun. Here we have factor 21 in the steps and numbers 42 and 63 (point d)


Metal ions as "trace elements":

The function of metal ions is partly not understood (or hasn't been earlier (1976).
Some general hypothetical aspects are given here departing from the dimension model:

1. At the level of elements in the periodic system metals may be interpreted as representing the "00-pole" in relation the non-metals as "0-poles" (i.e. C-N-O…). This polarity (complementarity) expressed in minus/ plus, lack versus surplus in relation to the octet rule.
   According to first postulates in the model, metals then corresponds to "anticenter", inward direction and polarizing forces.

2. Metal ions represent "anticenter" as the surrounding of organic cells, in sea water or soil or clay of some kind. And charge is positive outside of the cell membranes (rest potential).
   Metals are used to build skeletons, by unicellular organisms, and in multi-cellular animals the skeleton was from the beginning an exo-skeleton (as "surfaces"), which through immigration (direction inwards) became an endo-skeleton. This illustrates one general principle of life, the successive built-in of the 00-pole during evolution (as later in the evolution the built-in of the environments differentiates internal forces into a psyche).

With regard to the organs, the lighter metal ions Na+ and K+ gets the central function in nervous signals, Ca2+ role in skeletons and muscles. The nervous system and skeleton cells derive from the neural plate at the animal pole of an embryo and ectoderm, in embryos the 00-pole, outer cell layers (Biology, not yet translated files in this booklet series).
   At the same time some metal ions as Fe, Mg, Cu become built-in to centres in coenzymes, as in porphyrines: centres as end points of inward directed vectors. (We could perhaps regard these heavier metal ions from a higher atom shell as stronger vectors, pointing deeper inwards.) There is also the feature in our model of a "pole exchange" in last step of the dimension chain, inward directed motions defining new centres.

(Such a pole exchange may possibly be expressed as the repeated changes in potential over the membranes of axons making up the nervous signals.?)

The 00-pole represents also manyfoldness and separation: as primarily isolated atoms in contrast to the structure building non-metals.

The "S-curve" which describes the gradual transition from dominating covalent bonds to ion bonds in electronegativity, may be regarded as an expression for the complementary relation between non-metals and metals in lower d-degrees: a polarity "concave/convex" as one of the assumed geometrical definitions in d-degree 2.
   Geometrically the inflection points of such a curve (representing a polarized surface) make up a line, d-degree 1 (2b---1---2a in the model) and could eventually be though of as defining a first border for a cell. (Cf. lipids.).

It follows from the assumptions in the dimension model that metal ions as 00-poles should have a polarizing effect or function. The common expression that many enzymes are "activated" by Me-ions seems to imply just this fact. A few examples:
   - Ca contributes to cell division.
   - Fe divides the O2-molecule (in haemoglobin) through a step Fe2+ →Fe3+.
   - Mn takes part in photolysis, the division of water.

(Very hypothetically one could wonder if for instance the richness of Zn in eyes - (and of Ca in the balance organ) has something to do with the "bifurcation" to 2 eyes or 3 semicircular canals?)

Metal ions, incorporated from the environment, go to and gather in different organs according to their indivual atomic kind. Hence, there is a connection between one or a few organs and a certain metal. It doesn't seem as only the electron configuration furthest out, the group in the periodic system, was determining this connection, even if this also may be the case. (Ca, Calcium, and Strontium in the same group go both to bone tissue).
   Cadmium, Cd, and Hg belong to the same group but Cd is said to gather in kidneys while Hg gathers in the nervous system and brain. Zn in the same period goes chiefly to the eyes.
    A general hypothesis here is that mass numbers like Z-numbers are derived from a dimensional evolution, and also on a higher level the embryonic development of different organs in organisms. Then it ought to be possible, at least theoretically, to trace a dimensional connection between the different Me-ions and the differentiation of organs?

Some small annotations about the 5 ions Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca:

- various small annotations:



© Åsa Wohlin
Free to distribute if the source is mentioned.
Texts are mostly extractions from a booklet series in Swedish, made publicly available in 2000.