In the proposed view on levels in preceding file, as connected
d-degree steps in a dimension chain, stars appear
in the middle step 3 - 2.
The FA-force outwards from 0-pole
of d-degree 5, the FG-force from
00-pole inwards, the other way around: Disintegration outwards,
polarizing steps inwards.
The internal development and differentiation
of stars should be imagined as along a new coordinate axis
z - or as a fractal level development within step
Three first notes:
a) On the underlying level of physical properties
in this dimension model Mass has been assumed as
3-dimensional when analysed in relation to vector fields
as 4-dimensional and Charge as 2-dimensional. This
could be compared with the fact that for stars on the main
sequence mass is proportional to (~) the cube of the radius.
For white dwarfs this relation is inverted,
with mass inversely related to the cube of radius:
Here it's suggested that such an inversion may be an expression
for the opposite directions of the chain above, the structure
of the loop model.
The double directions in the middle step
may be regarded as illustrated on the atomic level in the
Neutrons n representing uncharged mass, protons
and electrons the polarization in charges. (Cf. too the
b) Range of variations in some elementary properties
in 10-powers from spectral classes O- to M-stars: 10-powers
coincide rather well with the d-degrees 3- 2-1 of the properties:
Rotation velocity ~
and temperature of the surfaces ~101.
*From 1/20 to ~70 times mass
of our sun.
in this model assumed as a property in step 1-0, represented
in each d-degree step.)
c) Spectral classes of stars on main sequence in order
of surface temperature from hottest to cool:
O-B-A-F-G-K-M, with 10 subclasses of each kind.
Temperatures from ~ 40.000° to 2.400°. (Range
widened through later observations of new stars.)
Magnitudes are by scientists divided in 5 steps, the 5th
root of 100 = 2,512 as factor. It give the number chain:
100 - 39,81 - 15,85. - 6,31 - 2,51 - 1.
It can be observed that middle 4 numbers also approximates
surface temperature steps for stars on the main sequence
above divided in 3 steps with quotient 5/2 = 2,5 (the middle
also in d-degrees in the dimension chain.):
O5 → B5,
B5 → G0, G0 →
The numbers becomes in pairs inversions of each other:
39,8 /\ 2,51, 15,85 /\ 6,3. (x10-2),
also reflecting the complementary and polarity principle
of the loop model?. (More about spectral classes below.)
5 phases in life time of stars:
A common description defines 5 main phases:
- Contraction in dense areas of clouds, aggregation of
matter until density and heat through gravitational pressure
starts first fusion process, the birth of a star.
- Fusion of H to He: stars on the "main sequence"
- Contraction of the core, expansion of the outer regions
(shell): the star becomes a "red giant".
- Fusion of He in the core to heavier elements. Further
H-combustion in the shell.
- Eventual "superfluous" material thrown out,
new contraction of the core to a white dwarf or neutron
star or a black hole, depending on mass of the core.
Hence, astronomers count on 2 main different phases of
fusion, of H to He and of He to heavier elements, and 3
main phases of contraction from birth to death.
A first addition: Also in the very first step there is
a polarization observed between denser, cooler areas in
the clouds and hotter thinner areas. (Curiously contradicting
thermodynamic laws as it seems.) Gravitational energy in
the denser area is then self-strengening and transformed
to heat according to common descriptions. (What happens
with the hotter, peripheral area of clouds?)
This change from the property Density
coupled with Cold to Density connected with Heat, is it
really fully understood?
In the dimension model the properties
Density and Heat are connected with opposite steps of the
dimension chain, assumed as the physical quantities defined
in steps 5→4 and 1→0/00
respectively. May the loops shed light upon the "transformation"?
Fusion need both a certain degree of density and of high
The problem, if one, returns when synthesis
of elements are connected with spectral types of stars (see
In any case life time phases of stars may be described
in 3 main steps along the Time axes:
- 3 polarizations, type core - "shell"
(a centre - anticentre structure, c-ac), with increasing strength:
a) clouds dense ↔ thin
b) red giants: core ↔ shell, c) dwarfs, n-stars ↔ nebulae,
- 3 contraction phases: a) dense area of
clouds, b) of core after H-combustion in red giants,
- 3 "divergence" phases of increasing
outward "detached" matter: a) outer hotter
cloud, b) giant shell expanding, c) thrown
out material as nebulae.
3 alternatives for collapses too, mass-depending:
a) black holes, b) neutron stars, c)
An attempt to illustrate the 3 stages in a dimension
The loop model and the reinterpretation to 3 levels
of polarizations "vertically":
5" → 3 ↔ 2
5' → 4 ↔ 1
5 → 0 ↔ 00.
The figures below are built on following aspects:
- The relation core - shell as a relation c-ac, 0 and 00-poles,
also higher d-degrees in relation to lower ones.
- The two different parts of contractions: a) for fusion,
b) for collapses, related to the border in middle step 3-2:
mass polarized into charges, n —>
p + e + ν. Mass - Charge properties
a relation d-degree 3 to 2 in the dimension model.
- Associations with d-degrees in the figures built on the
2x2-chain, x = 5 - 0,where intervals mark electron
orbitals s - p - d..., in connection with synthesized elements
in these orbitals: See
figure 8, figure
Fusion of elements (up to about Fe/Ni,
"endogen", will come to represent only "half"
of the way for contractions through gravitation, the inward
directed force, from the 00-pole.
- The ambiguous relation between density and temperature:
demanded increasing temperature in the core for fusion of
heavier elements, connected with decreasing surface temperature.
Density and Temperature properties primarily dined in opposite
ends of the dimension chain.
To the life time stages above it has to be added that very
massive stars also can undergo series of smaller development
phases during fusion of heavier elements.
a) Life time, fusion:
Contractions horizontally: synthesis of elements
in right part of the figure:
- Centres here in the middle step: cores with decreasing
size vertically upwards.
- Fusion steps corresponding to contractions leading to
new decreasing polarizations core ↑ —>
shell: diagonal arrows. (Illustrated as of "90° "
!?) Which impact do the higher stages of density, left diagonal
arrows, have in these polarizations? If any ?
- Released energy: steps from radiation toward more closed
"circles" as convection in denser cores.
(From more of gravitational "radiation"
at H→He-synthesis (?) to
more of electromagnetic radiation, to convection streams
of matter in rotational motion. Cf. dimension chain of forces:
step 4-3 FA / FG
; step 3-2 FE
/ FM. And rotational
motions of matter in d-degree 3. Radiation as waves
in lower steps →2 →1
- Gravitation - or this force as inward direction - is also,
according to the model, originally a polarizing force, here
perhaps responsible for separation of p and e as a condition
for fusion of nuclei?
One question concerns the polarizations in the 3 processes,
diagonal arrows, in physical interpretation. To take the
apparently best known of these, when stars at the end of
the phase on main sequence transform to red giants: Why
do their cores "suddenly" contract, why do their
shells blow up ?
It's vaguely said that it occurs when
all hydrogen has been fused to He, - but the shells still
contain H. for further He-fusion. The same question may
be asked about why so called "superfluous" matter
are thrown out.
Are there really any good explanations
for these quantified "jumps" in gravitation and
the connected polarizations core - shell / thrown out matter?
One suggestion here is to interpret these "polarizations"
as effects of the FA
-force (Vdiv): in d-degree 4 "anti-parallel"
to gravitation FG ,
but in d-degree 3-2 perpendicular as poles circular
versus radial according to assumptions about angle steps
in the model.
As such a force for divergence, from 0-pole
of polarized d-degree 5, FA
also represent the primary integration force (in opposition
to "gravitation" as primarily a polarizing force),
and FA would - as such
- be an essential factor in the fusion process (!?).
-force (the outward acceleration vector field) as the basis
for, or root to, Vacant Space as pole of d-degree 3 is closest
related to the FE -force
in d-degree 3, and among materialized particles to electrons,
(neutrinos here disregarded). Compare the statement about
a high density of electrons in the centre of our sun.
It would be the "vacant space"
as such that is pressed out at certain levels, when certain
degrees of mass density is reach: a new level of the polarization
mass - space.
Appearance of the FA
-force in different d-degrees:
Step 5 - 4: 0-pole: Integrating;
Step 4 - 3: 4b-pole: Vdiv,
Step 3 - 2: 3b-pole: Vacant
Presumably the same view is or may be described in other
more scientifically established terms by astronomers. However,
only "radiation pressure" or similar expressions
shouldn't be enough to explain these "jumps" in
the processes. (?)
b) End of fusion:
Here polarizations horizontally, contractions vertically:
(Regarded in the model as result in the very last step 0/00,
equivalent 5', expression for the 5-dimensional motion in
d-degree 0 of structure.)
Collapses of charge in step 3-2 on the left side of the
Left side of the border n <—|—>
p + e + ν (anti-ν:
The mass depending steps for collapses should perhaps be
regarded as smaller:
- White dwarfs (dw): degeneration of the charge polarity
p - e. ("3-2,5")
- Neutron stars (n): polarity p+
replaced by neutrons. ("3")
- Black holes (bl.h.): property of mass disappearing.
("3,5" - "4")
- Degeneration pressure is proportional to the density,
obviously in two different steps 5/3 → 4/3:
At a density 1035 u/m3
the degeneration pressure is proportional to the density5/3,
At still higher density it's proportional to the density4/3,
hence lower (!).
It sounds as if a certain border has to be passed, revealing
such a border, - through stepwise released energy?
The polarizations horizontally: as through the FA
What should here diagonals represent and vertical
steps, the "relations"?
The logic seems to demand that diagonal arrows
here point downwards, representing contractions. The FG
-force in the illustration along the vertical axis.
- Hence, first suggestion is that they represent attraction
forces around black holes and neutron stars, also then
around white dwarfs (?). Cf. for instance that the rotational
energy of neutron stars as pulsars is transmitted to their
whole nebula, indicating such attraction bonds.
- Secondly they may mark the circular structures between
centre and anticentre in d-degree step 3-2 of galaxies and
solar systems. (From the perpendicular relation FG
- Pointing to the unpolarized 5 - 5' - 5" levels,
they could eventually also be defining new centres for aggregations
of matter ? (And "corridors" of thrown out matter
for new phases of contraction and fusion "the other
way around", for solar systems, planets - star clusters
- galaxies (galaxy clusters ?),
If so, there should be such connections
as between black holes and first phase of synthesis, H-He,
between neutron stars and the second phase, between white
dwarfs and third phase of synthesis?
Cf. M-stars (below), coolest stars with
heavy elements and molecules in spectral lines, also found
near our galaxy centre, probably a black hole according
to one theory.
Vertical lines as number of steps 1-2-3:
downwards: expression for sizes of these levels, (in last
step to the right depending of depth of black holes).
- Finally the diagonals in both life time and end figures
could illustrate the combination of high density and high
temperature created in the cores of stars, the combination
of the opposite properties. It obviously have to imply a
transformation of gravity to temperature "through work",
in opposition to temperature as high kinetic energy. Or
more adequate to high temperature as high spread
of velocities? One example would be "M-sigma"-relations
between high "mass" of black holes and spread
of star velocities around them (stars corresponding
to particles, see file Temperature)?
(Cf. Big Bang: infinite density to pure
kinetic energy, highest temperature.)
Generally in the figure there are more of structure and
mass as structure in higher degrees, left side of the dimension
chain, more of motions and kinetic energy in lower degrees,
right half of the figure (thrown out matter), according
to the model. A in our own solar system the sun represents
most of the mass (~ left side of figure above), planets
most of the impulse moment, i.g. most of kinetic energy.
An older figure:
Synthesis of elements in the periodic
system - first 2 - 3 steps:
A series 2x2 , (x= 5-0) defines the number for
electrons in orbitals s-p-d-f and additions for whole shells
in the periodic system.
- 1st synthesis in stars H →
He concerns elements in orbital s1,
- 2nd synthesis elements as C-N-O in orbital p1,
- 3rd and following steps of syntheses goes on up to
Fe/Ni, elements at about the middle of orbital d1.
(These steps regard "endogen", "exothermic"
reactions, with terms from biology and chemistry, which
release energy and don't need energy from outside.)
1st synthesis is by astronomers assumed as the only one
occurring in stars on the main sequence (first generation?).
2nd, 3rd and following syntheses in the phase as red giants.
The orbital elements as corresponding to illustration of
The numbers 4 x 1 = H → He
in 1st synthesis could be noted.
There is, simplified, at least 4 stages of synthesis up
to element Fe, 56 u, as exothermic, endogen, not demanding
external energy. Examples of elements below:
Steps of synthesis as multiplications: 1 u x 4 →x 3 →x 2 →
Mg - 28Si - 32S
(~ 2 x 28Si)
(Cf. "A-Z"-number chain below.)
A general statement connects synthesis of the heavier elements
here to the sub-phases of smaller contractions in cores
of "variables", circa 1/3 of red giants.
A suggestion is that the 3rd and 4th steps of fusion above
could include features corresponding to spx-
and spdx-hybridizations on the molecular level.
Spectral lines of elements from spectral classes
of stars on the main sequence O →M:
(Simplified data from an older source,
of course incomplete, but mainly in agreement with data
The series implies a spectral development roughly from
s1 to p1 elements in O→B-types,
d1-elements in A→F-types,
stepwise towards more neutral elements
and molecular bands appearing from first p1+s1 type (CH)
in G-stars to p2+d1 types (as TiO) in K- to M-stars.
5 → 3 - 2
5 → 4 - 1
5 → 0 - 00
The star series from O to M on the main sequence corresponds
to decreasing masses according to the Hertzsprung-Russel
diagram (HR). From hotter massive stars to cooler in
the middle. K-stars on the main sequence are orange dwarfs,
M-stars red dwarfs.
Cf. white dwarfs as collapsed stars with
minor mass on the other side of the middle.
Principle of mass dependence along diagonals, decreasing
towards middle of the chain.
Compare mass dependence at collapses, figure "End
of fusion..." above, left part of that illustration.
- H→He synthesis continues
also in the shell of red giants.
- It's said to be a mystery that no red dwarfs (~ M-stars)
are found without elements heavier than H, He. Why a mystery?
Seems natural with proposed illustrations.
- The more massive the stars (with highest luminosity),
the more of the whole scale for surface temperature they
seem to involve in the phase as red giants. Also varying
in periods and sub-periods.
About "curious" B-stars with
spectral lines from Mn (55 u) and Hg (~200 u) and other
curiosities among the "Ap-stars" above, see below.
It seems to be a contradiction between the astronomers'
statements that stars on the main series only synthesize
H → He, and that all the
spectral classes but the very first part of O-B-stars include
spectral lines from increasingly heavier elements. The most
accepted answer seems to be that all the following spectral
classes are later generations of stars from clouds already
containing matter thrown out from earlier red giants.
It sounds however rather strange actually
that an even series of stars roughly connected with increasingly
heavy elements (and decreasing mass) should represent generations
in Universe: lately born stars as mostly dwarfs? With still
most matter in macrocosm as hydrogen H and helium He?
A certain vagueness in the statements
could make it allowed to ask if it really is impossible
to imagine heavier elements also synthesized in deeper levels
of cores in original stars? Unrecognized levels perhaps
in most massive stars? With reference to the figure above?
Are really newborn stars on the main sequence, if of a second
(or 3rd?) generation, from clouds including many heavier
elements, unable to synthezie still heavier elements from
Our sun is a G-star surrounded by inner planets containing
heavy elements, in fact nearly all, even Uranium. It's assumed
that the sun is a later generation of an earlier one, explaining
these heavy inner planets, but why then in exactly the same
place ? Couldn't the inner planets and the outer ones of
light elements reflect inversely thrown out material from
deeper levels of the same sun in older times?
Observe G-stars at or near the middle
in the figure above, related to d1-orbital elements as Fe
and Ni, and the series of lighter elements towards the right,
p and s-orbital elements:
It seems illustrating the opposition between
inner small planets dominated by Fe and Ni, and outer planets
with dominating light elements.
It's in any case an accepted proposition that not only
H→He synthesis but also the
CNO-cycle does occur in our sun.
Three first synthesis:
1. H →
He. - s1-orbital
2. CNO-cycle - p1-orbital
elements (also producing He)
3. Triple-alpha synthesis of C, carbon.
It could be observed that they also are 3 in number.
"A-Z-number chain", illustrating
processes 1 and 2:
With the loop model the d-degrees 5(or 0) →
4 → 3 are defined simultaneously
with d-degrees 2 ← 1 ← 0/00
(or 00), steps for s- and p-orbitals. Hence,
in following illustration we may see the first three processes
in a complete chain:
First two processes may be illustrated by the "A-Z"
number chain, 2 ways to synthesize He, both in our sun on
the main sequence. (From Chemical
If we take a dimension chain with superposed
odd figure level and add 2-figure numbers vertically downwards,
we get numbers as "A-Z"-numbers of primary elements:
Exemplified: 94+74 = 168, 74 + 73 = 147,
73+52 = 126 etc.
Right half: scientists imagine a process:
x 2 (potentially 6Li3)
+ 2 x 1H1.)
Left half: CNO-cycle: (O)-N.C; intermediate steps as 13C
etc. here excluded.
The figure illustrates a clear division of the two processes
as between first and second half part of the chain.
B, Boron, Be, Beryllium and Li, Lithium
are elements that seldom are observed in star spectra, mostly
found in interstellar "radiation". They are said
to disintegrate ("decay") again towards He + n
x p. Also in the CNO-cycle disintegration appears
as 16O →12C
+ alpha (He): "A-Z"-numbers at steps 4 →
3 + 1 in the figure.
Hence, 2 cyclic processes is given for synthesis and disintegration
for He-production; steps 4-3 and 2-1 corresponding to each
other in the loop model. Polarizations outwards, as "decay",
aggregations inwards, expressions for the complementary,
The fact that middle number for B is mostly found in interstellar
space (and Be, 8-4, Li 6-3 as well, "numbers depending"
directly and indirectly on B) may support the loop model.
Lower steps possible to regard as debranched from higher
degrees "meeting the other way around". (What
about O (16-8) and N (14-7) in interstellar space - for
Left half C-N-O-(OH) gives the foundation
for life structures.
- A special mystery, which the "A-Z"-figure
eventually could shed some light upon, is the appearance
of double OH-lines in spectrum from cool M-stars and in
H+-clouds. (They should curiously correspond to two different
velocities of the objects.)
In the "A-Z"-chain we have suggested
first number 18-9 from step 5 →
4 as corresponding to H20-OH (Z-number ionized), where one
H goes the other way around, step 1 ←
0/00 . Spectral lines of H+
dominate from hottest O-B-stars, M-stars represent the coolest.
Hence the mystery derives at it seems from opposite ends
of the chain for stars with respect to temperature. The
double spectral lines could reveal this connection between
(A correspondence to photolysis in macrocosm?)
Cf. the polarization already in big Hx-clouds
between hot, thinner and cool, denser areas!
3rd process, triple-alpha:
It has been a problem for astronomers how carbon C have
been created for the CNO-cycle in the sun, which presupposes
In later years a hypothesis (by Hoyle)
seems to be more or less proved that this creation is a
result of "resonance" with scientists' term.
The "energy" of one 8Be4
plus one 4He2
happens to be the same as the energy of one excited 12C6
(The synthesis would depend on Be-production
rapid enough to give time for its use in C-synthesis before
Be disintegrated into He.)
In "A-Z"-number terms we get this 3rd process
called "triple-alpha" in the middle
of the chain, in step 3 - 2.
Each whole step in the dimension chain
(1 d-degree) corresponds to one alpha or He, number 42 as
intervals (168 - 126 - 84 - 42 ).
Sum of Be 84 + He 42 in A-Z-numbers =
126 = C.
The term "resonance" sounds as it could support
the loop model with original polarizing steps towards middle
of the chain and "border" in this step. "Energies"
perhaps only equal in this step 5 →
3-2 ? Resonance as balance between acting polarizing-synthesizing
forces (FG / FA)
on underlying level).
However, also C + He (alpha) have the
same energy together as O, oxygen, (A-Z-numbers 126 + 42
= 168), which is said to explain the production of stable
oxygen, in opposition to the CNO-cycle where oxygen disintegrates:
O → C + alpha. The He-part
of stable oxygen could perhaps derive from half Be (for
symmetry), just be another alpha!
Elements heavier than Fe/Ni:
It has at least earlier been regarded as a problem by astronomers
how these heavier elements are created, since their synthesis
demands energy from some outer source. (Reactions could
be called "exogen", "endothermic".)
A simple answer to the question seems
to be that stars for these synthesis uses own released energy
from the fusion of lighter elements. Why not? That would
be in accordance with polarities in the loop model of a
dimension chain. Energy transport should follow as through
"underground tunnels" inwards higher d-degrees:
The scientists' explanation today is that the heavier
elements originate from "neutron capture" of lighter
elements (slow or rapid as indicating a border between two
Returning to the figure of spectral types in the loop model:
With the properties Mass and Charge related as d-degrees
3 to 2, it may be seen as expressed in the reactions n <—>
p + e (+ ν, anti-ν.
Hence, "neutron capture" seems
generally as one way to interpret the heavier elements.
(But from where all these neutrons
in solar plasma?)
An additional view, suggested here, would be to interpret
the neutron capture as an expression for the involvment
of left part in the chain above: imagine the masses of heavier
elements as defined, more or less indirectly (through "resonances"?),
in left part of the chain through the steps in the right
part where we have the "endogen" fusion of lighter
elements. In accordance with the loop model.
Cf. perhaps inversions: all elements
down to "about 150" u are said to undergo
fission processes, the inversion 150 /\ 67. (10x),
67 a bit higher than highest stable isotope of Ni 60,
end of right side fusion processes. 60 /\ 167 u (x 10x).
Ap-stars, temperature windows and the loop model:
It's observed that within a certain temperature interval,
called a "temperature window", between B-5
and F-5, from stars objects called Ap-stars,
there is odd concentrations of spectral lines from for instance
lantanides, that's from elements in the f1-orbital,
also from e.g. Hg in d3-orbital, hence really heavy elements
(Eu ~152 u, Ho ~185 u, Hg ~ 200 u).
"Chemically peculiar B-type stars"
(B7-B9) have spectral lines of Mn, 55 u and Hg, 200 u.
(There are also, in totally other contexts,
talk about "windows" on the scale of electromagnetic
waves. And something similar for sound waves, special frequencies
giving resonances for different human organs in the body.)
With reference to views in the paragraph above and to the
mentioned mysterious double spectral bands of OH, it seems
possible to interpret the curious Ap-stars in a similar
way, expressions for the loop connections between higher
and lower steps in the dimension chain?
With the figure illustrating connections
of d-degree steps with the chain of orbitals, we have the
f-orbitals in step 4-3, in the loop model connected with
step 2-1, that of the porbital.
The supposed view however doesn't appear so simple as in
There is no fixed borders between the spectral classes with
all subclasses, and it needs more data to find an eventual
more precise connection, if one, between orbital elements
on the right and left side of the picture. d1-orbital elements
is mentioned first in A-F-stars but late B-stars B7-B9 shows
spectral lines from Hg, a d3-element. And spectral class
for stars showing much of f1-orbitals as lantanides isn't
mentioned in that source.
Also for the fusion of heavier elements than Fe/Ni we can
associate to "sp(d)-hybridizations" on the moleclar
level, imagining similar kinds of additions for syntheses
of those elements: s+p+d in numbers 2 + 6 + 10 = 18, highest
orbital x (not in Nature), 8 (as 2 + 6) + orbital 6 in the
figure below = 14, also the number of the f-orbital on the
higher d-degree side of the middle...
Uranium - Hydrogen:
Cf. the relations between lightest and heaviest element
in Nature, H and U, H 1 u and uranium 238 u: (from files
The two halves of the dimension chain as triplets:
Here it should also be observed that taking
the quotient between the two superposed numbers as representing
opposite direction in the chain we get:
975 / 531 (x102) ≈ 2 x 92, Z-number of Uranium,
531 / 975 (x102)≈ 2 x 27, Z-number middle of Fe 26 Z
and Ni 28 Z.
(Number 54 not only the surplus of neutrons
in Uranium but also the "endogen" fusion.)
Chemical Elements here.)