9.  Glycolysis - Citrate cycle
Codon grouped amino acids on the basis of their origin.


1. Sum of ams with U-base in 1st and/or 2nd position of codons is 752, exactly half the total = 292 + 252 + 208 in the ES-series. It's division between the two 12-groups 770 and 734:

Group 770: Cross- and Form-coded: 208 + 100 = 308
Group 734: RNA- and Pair-coded:    544 - 100 = 444

All these ams derive from stations in glycolysis, no one from citrate cycle.
    (It's suggested here that this is connected with the fact that U as coenzyme UTP-UMP is the one engaged in bonds and breaking of glycogen.)

Hence, we could imagine that the two groups or number chains à 752 also represent the two sides outside/inside mitochondria membranes. This under following conditions:
   Ala is regarded as derived from oxaloacetate (may also derive from pyruvate). Ser2, AG-coded, likewise, as along the outer loop from oxaloacetate via homoserine back to 3-P-glycerate. Gly (one unit) from Ser1 or 2? Meth as connected with Cys (?).
   With these assumptions we get ams derived from the different stations in the processes as shown in table 6: Note the approximate ES-number divisions

Table 6: Amino acids from stations in glycolysis - citrate cycle:

2. The divisions in codon type groups 770 and 734 on the both sides of mitochondria membrane is shown in figure 9-1 below. Included in the figure is an observation from files about number-base systems that these groups -/+1 seem to refer to each other through transformations between nb-10 and nb-8 and in opposite directions:

Fig 9-1: Codon type groups, division on Glycolysis and Citrate cycle:
(The codon type groups defined in file 2.)

Differences, cf. interpretation of number 77:
    308 - 444 = 136 = 4 x 34
    462 - 290 = 172 = 4 x 43              (Cf. A1 - U1 = 1 x 34, A2 - U2 = 2 x 43)

43 to 34: 9 ~ OH-

Also the rest, not U-contenting codon groups, are divided +/-2 in numbers of the ES-chain, a division in step 5 - 4, while U-groups represent a number division in step 4 - 3.

In the figure above we have for instance 18 as differences 308-290, 444-462 and +/-2 in the transformations. We have perhaps (?) here a correlation among ams to the general theme in the processes, secretion of 2H and processing of H2O (18). If so, what about +/- 154?    Could it eventually express the same as the loop, outside the main steps, from oxaloacetate via homoserine (and homocysteine) back to 3-P-glycerate where sum of ams = 154?

Codons and ams in the four groups are shown below:

Fig 9-2: Amino acids in the 4 codon type groups:


3. Division in G+C- and A+U-coded ams
between the two parts of the process shows notable agreement with divisions in the ES-chain (+/-1).

Fig 9-3: Division on groups G+C, A + U from stations in Glycolysis - Citrate cycle:


4. Atom divisions
on ams from Glycolysis and from Citrate cycle become the same for C-atoms as between U1+C1-coded and G1+A1-coded ams (cf. file 4, figure 4-1):

   Glycolysis 47 C = 564 = 460 + 104, other atoms 292 - 104 +1.
   Citrate cycle 33 C = 396 = 292 + 104, other atoms 252 + 104 -1.

Fig. 9-4: Division on atom kinds


5. Sums of stations in the two processes,
compared with groups of ams, a) bound, b) with +1 for charge and bonds to S- or P-enzymes:

Glycolysis, 8 C3-stations: a) 736, b) 750.
Citrate cycle, 10 stations*: a) 2 x 736, b) 2 x 748

*Malate, Oxaloacetate, Citrate, Cisaconitate, Isocitrate, Oxalosuccinate, α-ketoglutarate, Succinyl(~Coa), Succinate, Fumarate.

That the sums approximate numbers as 752 and 734 among ams in the ES-series is not so natural as it perhaps may seem.

Table 7: Molecules in the citrate cycle

1496 = 11 x 136 (~ Inosine) = 44 x 34.
Molecules with 5 C and 4 C = 748 - 12 (6 x 2) for charges, bond = 736;
molecules with 6 C =:748, - 12 (4 x 3) = 736. .
736 = 32 x 23.
    Sum of substances = 1496, x 2 (turns) = 2992 = 11 x 272 (half the number 544)

Eight of the stations in Citrate cycle as uncharged, compared with the ES-chain:

101 = Succinyl →
→ 2 x 59 = Succinate →
→ → 2 x 58 = Fumarate →
→ → → 2 x 133 +/-1 (== 292 - 159) Malate + Oxaloacetate →
→ → → → 2 x 192 (292 - 100) = Citrate + Isocitrate →
→ → → → → 146 (½ x 292) = α-ketoglutarate, → (→ Succinyl...101)
(Two substances excluded here, Cisaconitate  174 and Oxalosuccinate 190.)


6.  44 - 59, intervals in the E-chain:
It is worth noting the intervals 44 (4' →>3') and 59 (2' ← 1') in the ES-chain, steps that correspond to each other in the background model. See figure 9-4. It is numbers equivalent with main molecules incorporated into the citrate cycle: CO2 in step from Pyruvate (88) to Malate (133+1) and of acetyl-(CoA) + O(H) = 59 (60) in step from Oxaloacetate (133 -1) to Citrate 192 (132 + 60 (~ 133 -1 and 59 +1):

Fig 9-5: Intervals 44 and 59 in ES-chain as additions into Citrate cycle:


7. Orotate <———> Inosine; codons U/C → A/G in 3rd position:
There is a trend from ams with 3rd base U/C to ams with 3rd base A/G like a coordinate axis through the processes, in ams codons from first stations in the glycolysis to Glu in the citrate cycle, illustrated by following examples:

Fig 9-6: Orotate - Inosine, a coordinate axes through the processes


8. Anti-codons:

Most codons of ams from Glycolysis have anti-codons that are codons for ams from the Citrate cycle - as a kind of "complementary poles". Is it perhaps possible to imagine that the two series of codons once originated from opposite strands of DNA (via tRNAs)? One such variant is shown in table 7:

Table 8: Anti-codons:

Among ams from Citrate cycle the AG-codons of double-coded Ser and Arg can only be derived in a second step through a change between optional U and C in 3rd base as from Thr and Pro.
   Exchanges within group 416 in the table are possible

*

To The bases - some annotations.

© Åsa Wohlin
Individual research
E-mail: a.wohlin@u5d.net


 

Links and Notes

Table 24 amino acids (ams)
R-chsins, A, Z, N

Abbreviations
- ways of writing -

Background model

Files here:

0. Amino acids and codon bases.
Why this coding system?





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