1. Mass division on kinds of atoms:

First to observe is the fact the mass division on C-atoms versus
other atoms is the same as between U+A-coded ams and G+C-coded ones:

C-atoms, 80 = **960**

N + O + S + H =** 544**

The division on codon grouped ams of the "substituents", N, O, S, H = 544:

G1 + A1: **292**

C1 + U1: **252**

Mass of C-atoms in 12-group 770 = 444 = **544 - 100**

Mass of C-atoms in 12-group 734 = 516 = **416 + 100**,

H-atoms: 252 - 100 = 152 = 4' - 1'

N+O+S-atoms: 292 + 100 = 392 = 5' + 1'

The division between N-atoms and S+O+H-atoms could perhaps be noted
too:

Mass of atoms in R: **C + N** = 3 x 376, ½ (5' + 4' + 3'). **O + S + H** = 376

10 O + 2 S + 152 H = **376** = 1/2 x 752

|- 2 x 208

12 N = **168** = 1/2 x 336 (544 - 208).

80 C + 12 N = 1128 = **3 x 376**

__ 2. The division of C-atoms on codon groups Purine - Pyrimidine pairs:__

**and simultaneously on codon groups:** s

**G1 + A1: 33 C **= 292 +** ½** x 208 ** = 396**

**C1 + U1: 47 C **= 460 + **½** x 208 = ** 564**

When one of the two 208-groups is divided on first numbers 292
- 252, we get the relations between mass division on **atom kinds
**and on **codon groups of ams** shown below:

**Fig 4-1:** Division
of atom kinds and ams groups, halving 208

In table 4 below we find number 104 as the difference between groups
G1 +C1 and U1 + A1. With number 416 uncounted, the sums get equally
divided vertically and horizontally.

The arrangement could perhaps reveal a symmetric
phase in step 5'- 4' along two axes (544) in opposite directions:
C-atoms to**/**from "substitutes", before a stage 3'
(416).

**3. The keto-/amino acvid polarity:**

**Table 4:** Mass
of C-atoms in G+C = mass of other atoms in U+A

**The domain groups **of ams along the third polarity between
bases, the keto-**/**amino types, shows in 2nd base order a mass division
on atom kinds with strong regularity:

C-atoms: G2 + U2 = **576 = 3 x 192** (292 - 100). Other atoms
= **272**

C2
+ A2 = **384 = 2 x 192** (292 - 100). Other atoms = **272**

Cf. in B-chains unbound: C = 576, O = 2 x 384; N = 336 (544 - 208),
H 96 - 4.

**4. Number 192:**

*This number 192* appears in many sums in the genetic code. Why?

In the ES-chain = 5' - 1', the interval 292 -- 100.

(I's the mass of citrate, isocitrate, however not an explanation. It's 3 times 64, 6 times 2^5.).

1536 - 1344 - 1152 - 960 - 768 - 576 - 384 - 192

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x 192

1536 = sum of all C-atoms in 24 ams, R + B.

1344 = sum of 24 bound B-chains (24 x 56)

960 = U+A-coded ams

768 +2 = ams with mixed codons, 2 x 384

576 -1 = U+A-group in non-mixed codons

192 -1 = G1-coded ams

__5. C-atoms in R-chains
of ams as basis for mass division:__

This division doesn't concern codon distribution but seems related
to the ES-series and number 584, 2 x 292, with certain assumptions.
(Here C for carbon.)

Phe and Tyr are synthesized as 3C- plus 4C-molecules,
Trp as 3C + 4C + 5C - 1C. Trp gets its B-chain from Ser, shares
codon with Cys and can brake down to Ala, hence here regarded as
"meeting the other way around", added to the l C group.

**Fig 4-2:** *
Cn: 4C, 7C, 3C +0C, 2C, 1C + 9C*

(4 C: Arg1, Arg2, Lys, His = 356, + Leu1, Leu2, Ile1, Ile2 = 228.

7 C: Phe + Tyr = 198;

3 C: Glu, Gln, Val, Meth, Pro = 305; 0 C =
Gly = 1;

2 C = Asp, Asn, Thr = 162;

1 C: Ala, Ser1, Ser 2, Cys = 124;

9 C:
Trp = 130.)

__6. Number of C-atoms in codon groups of ams as halvings:__

We may also note that number of C-atoms are approximately distributed
on codon groups as 2/3 - 1/3 in two steps

53 C in U1+A1-coded ams (+1 in A2 + U2), ~ 2**/**3
x 81

27 C in G1+C1-coded ams (- 1 in G2 + C2),
~ 1**/**3 x 81

↓→18 in C1, 19 in G2, ~ 2**/**3 x 27

9
in G1, 7 in C2, ~ 1**/**3 x 27

__7. End atoms of R-chains
as basis for mass division:__

- Ams with end atoms CHx plus Gly (H) = 420.

- Ams with end atoms O, OH, S and no N = sum 468

- N in end-groups or in rings (Trp and His), including Gln and Asn
= 616.

420 + 468 = **2 (544 - 100) = 888 **

616 =
**2 (208 + 100)**.= **616***

*(2 Arg charged = 200 +2, rest 416 - 2)

Note that all N-contenting ams but Trp derive from the citrate
cycle.

(Another division: ams more or less polar: 468 + 616 = 2 x 544 -
4. Non polar ams, the CHx-group = 2 x 208 + 4.)

**7x: Three notes:**

a) A division of the G+C group of aa 544, 1st base order, after kind of end atoms, approximates the one between mixed and non-mixed codons, 385 and 159:

b) [ U1 +A1 group 960, if S-contenting aa are added to the CHx-group:

**CHx**: UU, UU, AU1, AU2, =262

**S** UG, AUG = 122....................................................Sum **384**, 2 x 192

**O**: UA, UC, AC, AG = 214

**N**: UGG, AA, AG = 304.......Sum 518 (2 x 259)

**O-N** AA = 58.............................+ 58............. .........Sum **576**, 3 x 192 ]

c) RNA- and Pair-coded aa divided after end atoms:

H + CHx: 7 aa **2 x 208 - 2**

S, OH, O-N, NHx: 5 aa: **2 x 159 + 2**

__8. 81 - 47, a division of number 128 and number of
atoms__:

There are 128 C-atoms in the R- + B-chains of the 24 ams 128 = 544 - 416.

His 81 and Cys
47 (mass of R-chains) cooperate in an enzyme to break fructose at the start of the glycolysis.

The number of atoms in R-chains are exactly twice the total
number of C-atoms in R+B-chains in groups G + C and U + A:

G1+C1: **R+B = 47 C** →
all atoms in **R = 94**; (G2 + C2 46 and 91)

U1+A1: **R+B = 81 C** → all atoms in **R = 162;** (U2 + A2 82 and 165)

**Fig**. 17 files, 03-03:

Which skeleton doubles its projection in its radical part? The
human body in the brain!?

U1 + A1-coded ams: 81 C = entire number of C-atoms
in R-chains +1

G1 + C1-coded ams: 47 = entire number of C-atoms
in B-chains - 1

Minus **/** plus 81 and 47 gives also from the codon groups of ams from 544 and 416:

½ x 544 - 81 = G1, 191

½ x 544 + 81 = C1, 353

544 - 81 = U1, 463. 544 - 47 = A1, 497

416 + 81 = A1, 497
416 + 47 = U1, 463....difference 34 = 81 - 47.

Why this division of 128 in 81 - 47?

Cf. figure 13-2 in file 13 about the 2x2-chain:. Total 94 x 16 or 47 x 32 = 1504

94 + 34 = 128, ½ x 94 = 47, + 34 = 81

Cf. R-chains of His 81 nd Cys 47 making up the active center of he enzyme halving fructose at the start of glycolysis.

__7. A similar "perpendicular" relation between number of C and H__

in the same codon groups:

C + H: total in U+A-coded ams R = **152**, ~ number of H in all R-chains

C + H: total in G+C-coded ams R = **80**, ~ number of C
in all R-chains.

(See figure** here**.)

**9. Some gatthered points from above and other files**

with a link to tables in an Appendix:

1. In ams groups G1 + C1 and U1 + A1 the number of atoms in side chains R is exactly 2 times the total number of C-atoms in R+B chains; (File 04 §8):

G + C: 47 C (R+B) → 94 atoms (R)

U + A: 81 C (R+B) → 162 atoms (R).

2. R + B chains unbound:

G1 + C1 differs from G2 + C2 with 1 unit: 1282 → 1281.

U1 + A1 1994 → U2 + A2 = 1995.

3. The keto-/amino acid polarity, ams R+B unbound, sum 3276:

A1 + C1 = G2 + U2 = 1808 Number of atoms also the same1 267

G1 + U1 = A2 + C2 = 1468 - " - : 201

1 However, not equally divided on atom kinds.

Cf. Transformations, file. 17, § 1.4.1.

4. The keto-/amino acid polarity, R-chains, (file 04-§3).

A2 + C2 —
G2 + U2: 384 — 576, a 2/3 division of C-atoms

544 divided equally on the groups: 272 — 272: 'substituents'.

5. Mass division between purines and pyrimidines: file 04 § 1, 2.

544 into 292 - 252 between purines and pyrimidines:

A1+G1: C-atoms 292 + 104 = 396. Substituents 292

U1 + C1: C-atoms 252 + 104, + 208 (= 564). Substituents 252

6. R+B bound, sum 2848:

C-atoms 1536, substituents 1312 = 4 x 192 (B) + 544 (R)

See file 13 §6, 1760 - 224-steps.

7. R+B bound:

Number of atoms without C = 272. (+ 128 C = 400.)

Condensation from 468 atoms, R+B unbound, implying + 4H - 3 x 24.

8. 20 ams: 384 atoms, the two sets of ams with two codons = + 84 atoms (5' - 3').

384 divided on R- and B-chains 207 — 177, about the same division as in the ES-chain and Table 1 on ams with mixed codons.

**Link to Appendix: **

Tables on mass division on
atom kinds and number of atoms, 1st and 2nd base order, in R, R+B unbound and in R+B bound.

To** The two 12-groups
of ams - details**.